oreilly.comSafari Books Online.Conferences.
Articles Radar Books  

O'Reilly P2P Directory

What's New
The O'Reilly P2P directory lists companies, projects and initiatives related to peer-to-peer technologies. •  Collanos Workplace
•  Outhink
•  VXNET
•  ZetaGrid
•  PeerMetrics
Category View | Alphabetical Listing | Detail Listing
.NET Microsoft's .NET consists of a "set of building block services" including Passport.NET (for user authentication) as well as services for file storage, user preference management, calendar management, and many other tasks. The .NET strategy is built around the principle of web services that are built around SOAP's XML messaging framework. The idea is for the internet itself to be the basis of a new operating system that is capable of providing application services previously only available to the desktop. The focus seems to be divided into services for developers, IT professionals and businesses. Microsoft's .NET website provides a simple definition of .NET as well as a number of white papers that are available for review.
Internet Operating System, Servers/Services as Peers
1stWorks 1stworks Corporation provides an interactive peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is based on its own patented peer network addressing technology and content management architecture. The company's hotComm client enables drag and drop file sharing, instant messaging, interactive text messaging, voice connections and web tours between participating hotComm users on the Web. hotComm supports multiple communication modes including "Text Messaging" that transmits every single word separately so that the message builds dynamically in front of the recipient and Voice features that direct audio connections between hotComm users.

IM-Live is a component of hotComm that provides immediate, serverless, Internet-based Messaging for sales and service applications, using a Java applet to create a direct, real time connection to customers or prospects. ezPeer provides the platform's dynamic addressing capabilities. See the hotComm User Guide for more details.
Collaboration, File-Sharing
AgentWare AgentWare's Syndicator is an open-architecture Java and XML-based software development suite for creating distributed applications and services for the Internet. The Syndicator development suite consists of the builder, the content monitor, wireless and broadband enablers, an XML development interface and support for SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol). Syndicator provides a simple interface for developing e-business applications, syndication applications, and a host of off-the-shelf packaged solutions. It also supports integration with many popular e-business application servers like BEA WebLogic, Apache Jakarta Tomcat, IBM WebSphere, iPlanet and ATG's Dynamo. Data sheets and several online demonstrations for the Syndicator suite are available for review.
Development Frameworks
Akamai Technologies, Inc. Akamai Technologies' core intelligent mapping technology is known as EdgeAdvantage, an independently-controlled content distribution service (CCD) based on Peer-to-Peer technologies. The company was cofounded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (M.I.T. LCS) professor Tom Leighton, an expert in parallel algorithms, applied mathematics and fault tolerance in distributed networks. Akamai provides what is commonly known as content peering, the task of optimizing large and complex networks and keeping large sites up and serving content, applications and streaming media at usable rates. Akamai's FreeFlow service delivers content via its global network utilizing sophisticated algorithms developed by M.I.T. researchers. The service continuously monitors Internet conditions to discover the optimal "edge server" and delivery route for each request. Akamai's Digital Parcel Service (DPS) combines enhanced content delivery with digital rights management capabilities to form a licensed digital media content distribution system.
Infrastructure, Licensed Media Distribution
Alberg Software HIVE is Alberg Software's Enterprise P2P Platform for developing new, collaborative applications based on Sun's JXTA technology. Unlike Lotus Notes and other collaborative business process management applications, HIVE operates without the use of a central server for regulating processes or storing data. The program also comes equipped with a set of utility components and tools for creating "Discussions", "Instant Messaging", "File Sharing", "Calendering" and other features. The Hive 1.0 Beta is available for download.
Collaboration, Distributed Objects
AllCast The AllCast software-based platform provides peer-to-multipeer content distribution for the content webcaster that also allows the content owner to maintain a 'cascading' environment. The new network distribution model represented by AllCast is based on its own patented technology (US5884031) to ensure that there are no bandwidth or server bottlenecks regardless of the size of the stream or audience. AllCast claims that its technology can enable content-providers with the ability to webcast easily and securely in a scalable fashion that allows a maximum number of listeners or viewers to participate for a much lower cost than most currently-deployed live Internet broadcasting systems (audio or video, narrow or broadband). AllCast's streaming media broadcast technology provides the passive conduit functions necessary to ensure that content is delivered to end users in a quality fashion.
Superdistribution
Alliance Consulting, Inc. Alliance Consulting, Inc. is a consulting firm that specializes in offering Peer-To-Peer solutions utilizing the Groove Networks business collaboration and component based distributed application platform. Alliance tries to apply a Dell business model to consulting, and specializes in solutions pairing existing network infrastructures with Groove software to provide basic P2P collaboration "out of the box". Alliance also provides custom solutions through its Web Development Center, staffed with Microsoft Distributed Internet Applications (Microsoft DNA), Java 2 Enterprise Edition (Java2EE) and Groove specialists, for systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and financial applications.
Infrastructure
Amaya Web Editor/Browser Amaya is an open-source browser and authoring tool from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It allows web pages to be read or written to, and may eventually include support for third-party annotation.
The Writeable Web
Anthill Anthill is an experimental framework created by members of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Bologna. Anthill's goal is to simplify P2P application development and deployment by freeing the programmer of all low-level details including communication, security and ant scheduling.

Anthill is based on the multi-agent system (MAS) paradigm and strives to integrate the evolutionary techniques of natural systems into its framework. Gnutant is an ant algorithm implementing a document sharing application. There is also a prototype implementation of a real network environment. A development site, publications and Javadoc-generated documentation is available.
Agents as Peers, Development Frameworks
AudioFind AudioFind maintains web based Peer-To-Peer (P2P) network search services. AudioFind.com is a searchable directory of MP3 and other audio files that crawls the Internet for updated content on a daily basis. Gnute Network Search is a searchable directory that allows users to locate and download audio, image, movie and software files located on the Gnutella P2P network. Both search services employ the Engage privacy service to protect the privacy of users via browser ads that do not collect personal information and permission-based e-mail.
File-Sharing
BabbleNet BabbleNet is an XML-based communication protocol and real time chat application that IBM describes as "a cross between Gnutella and Internet Relay Chat". BabbleNet's P2P modular framework and multicast peer location protocol allow decentralized, ad hoc chat networks to be constructed by users without connecting to or involving a centralized server. Users may also edit a babblenet.properties file to create private subnets. BabbleNet supports all Java platforms. The distribution is free for non-commercial and lawful use under the terms of an IBM alphaWorks License Agreement.
Messaging Frameworks
BadBlue BadBlue's line of server products is designed to transform any client workstation into a powerful, search-enabled web server with built-in security features for creating and managing user accounts and passwords and restricting access to shared areas and virtual directories. The BadBlue system also provides users with the ability to share Microsoft Office files such as Excel spreadsheets and Word documents in real time, and supports CGI, ISAPI, PHP and popular web extensions. The BadBlue core small footprint server is only 65k and was designed for use within mobile and embedded devices. A version of the BadBlue Personal Edition is freely available for the Windows 95, 98, ME and NT 4 platforms. Two white papers, A Standards-based, P2P Approach to Marketplaces and Exchanges and BadBlue Platform Approach: A Web Server in every device, provide more details about the company's technology strategy.
File-Sharing, Security
Base One International Base One develops programming tools and middleware for developing P2P applications. The company uses its patent-pending technologies to extend Microsoft's Visual C++ and MFC classes and connect to any existing database including: SQL Server, Access, Sybase, IBM DB2, Oracle and SQL Anywhere. The company's Base/1 Internet Server (BIS) and other products are all build upon the same Peer-to-Peer, Rich Client Architecture. Current clients include Deutsche Bank, who uses BaseOne to create a virtual supercomputer able to do the work of a mainframe.
Development Frameworks, Distributed Computation, Security
BEEP BEEP (Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol) is an XML-based messaging framework for building application protocols in progress at the IETF.

BEEP will provide a generic application protocol kernel for asynchronous interactions that is designed to permit simultaneous and independent exchanges of both textual and binary messages.
Messaging Frameworks
BIAP Systems, Inc. BIAP Systems, Inc.'s GOtrieve is a software platform for retrieving, integrating and sharing content across networks or the Internet. GOtrieve uses open-source technology including HTML and XML to create customized "agents" that can retrieve web- or network-based content from multiple sources. The content is then compiled into a single, custom designed page that can be accessed by any web-enabled device, including web-ready cellular phones and PDA's.
Agents as Peers
Bioinformatics.org: The Open Lab "Bioinformatics.org: The Open Lab" is a non-profit organization established in 1998 at the University of Massachusetts Lowell to provide Open Source software for bioinformatics by hosting its development and keeping biological information freely available. The group has 300 members working on a dozen products. One of which is "Piper", a Peer-To-Peer (P2P) distributed scripting language originally used to build a P2P collaboration tool for distributed bioinformatics applications. A FAQ is available onsite that provide more details about this organization and the nature of its work and projects.
Collaboration, Development Frameworks, Distributed Computation
Bitzi Bitzi is a freely-available open community "metacatalog" that allows users to describe, rate and verify any type of digital content based each file's uniquely-distinctive "bitprint" (cryptographic hash). Bitzi's comprehensive catalog of the available files from various decentralized networks (such as Gnutella, FreeNet and Napster) also provides users with a bit-level authentication system for determining if their downloaded files are complete and uncorrupted. Bitzi has a developer program and will be making its service available to the public in the future.
Metadata
Biz2Peer Technologies Biz2Peer is developing a peer-to-peer marketplace platform that can be used to create e-commerce and Supply Chain Management systems. The company's architecture is designed to solve many of the shortcomings and problems of centralized platforms.
Development Frameworks
Blogger Blogger makes web publishing easier by providing an easy-to-use interface to update your web site. Blogger can be used to create an individual or group weblog that can be transferred to the user's own domain.
The Writeable Web
Bluetooth Bluetooth wireless technology is emerging as a de facto standard for short-range wireless connections between cell phones and other mobile and portable devices. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group consists of companies in telecommunications, computing, and networking industries that are driving the development of the technology and backing it on the market.

For an introduction to the technology, see "Personal Area Network: A Bluetooth Primer."
Devices as Peers
Brazil Project Brazil an enterprise P2P Java technology developed and tested at Sun Labs over the last two years that is now available for download. If you are a developer using Java technology, it's worth a serious look. The Brazil project is a web-based infrastructure that links people securely to information, computers and other devices leveraging existing standards and protocols. The framework enables stand-alone systems to work together within the Web space. A strong authentication architecture allows extranets to access intranets in an open environment without compromising security. The Brazil project's approach extends the endpoints of a network to new applications and smaller devices. At the same time it can incorporate legacy applications. It seems to be a much more evolved Jini API.
Devices as Peers, Infrastructure
Buzzpad, Inc. Buzzpad, Inc.'s initial product release is BuzzPad Linker, a Peer-To-Peer file sharing, messaging and gaming product. Buzzpad Linker enables a user to create contact lists, send Instant Message (IM) chats and allow multiple people to "link" to each other and use applications together. A number of free multiplayer games for the Buzzpad Linker made by Freeloads Games (freeloads.com), a division of Buzzpad, Inc., are available for download.

Freeloads.com offers Peer-To-Peer gaming and social interaction based upon the Buzzpad Linker P2P gaming platform. The Freeloads P2P Games Suite (Solitaire, E-Battle, Snakes, Quadris, Go-Moku, Checkers and Chess) is installed by the user for online P2P (including chat) or offline individual play. Windows, a Pentium computer, 16 MB RAM, SVGA 640x480 with 256 colors resolution, 2x CD-ROM drive, a mouse, and a 28.8 connection to the Internet are required.
Gaming
BXXP BXXP is an XML-based messaging framework for building application protocols that was used as a starting point for the IETF BEEP (Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol) Working Group's efforts.

BXXP was the brainchild of Marshall Rose, now of Invisible Worlds.
Messaging Frameworks, Servers/Services as Peers
CareScience, Inc. Care Data Exchange is CareScience, Inc.'s peer-to-peer technology that enables the exchange of information between healthcare organizations by providing highly secure, real-time Internet access to clinical results, patient demographics, medical records and other critical data. The system uses Intel's IAS (Internet Authentication Services) for its managed authentication services, and its risk assessment technologies are based on the Corporate Hospital Rating Project rules library developed at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and rules libraries developed by The Wharton School of Business. CareScience, Inc. offers its public data benchmarking product, CaduCIS Net, free of charge to all hospitals, physician groups, health systems and plans.
Distributed Computation, File-Sharing
CenterSpan CenterSpan Communications Corporation recently purchased Scour and the Scour Exchange, and will be relaunching as both legal and secure systems for sharing music, movies and images over the Internet. Before aquiring Scour's assets, CenterSpan's already had its own client software, Socket, which provides a "group activity hub" that combines instant messaging with collaborative applications and multiplayer gaming. (See game demonstration page.) Take an interactive tour of Socket's file sharing and instant messaging capabilities.
Collaboration, Gaming
Centrata Born at MIT and developed by pioneers in distributed computing, Centrata has created technology that connects desktop computers in an effort to create an enterprise-class computing platform.
Distributed Computation
ChessBrain ChessBrain is a globally distributed Chess playing network by veteran programmer Carlos Justiniano. The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and XML -powered P2P framework currently connects hundreds of node operators in 24 countries. Players request a serial number and download a game viewer client that interacts with the main ChessBrain server, known as the SuperNode server. The SuperNode server dispatches move branches to hundreds of peernode servers for processing. The six kinds of clients currently used are PHP game viewer, Java/Flash MX game viewer, C++/Win32/DirectX3D game viewer, Linux/Win32/Cygwin/MacOS X server node, PHP SOAP proxy (for returning SOAP responses) and a SOAP::Lite-driven Perl test suite that handles important automated testing tasks. A C++-based intelligent agent named Shannon runs as a SuperNode thread to communicate with Free Internet Chess Server (FICS).

The primary ChessBrain servers provide two publicly accessible sites, chessbrain.net and distributedchess.net. All ChessBrain SuperNode and PeerNode interactions take place via SOAP over Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is utilized as a common protocol allowing communications between ActionScript, C++, Java, Perl, and PHP programs running on Linux, MacOS X and Windows. The ChessBrain site provides links to a Quick Summary covering ChessBrain technology, the ChessBrain Web service, a global map of the ChessBrain Network, a well stocked Resources page, a FAQ and Mobile ChessBrain.
Distributed Computation, Infrastructure
Clip2 Clip2 Distributed Search Solutions (Clip2 DSS) develops and provides technical data and research for the Gnutella developer and end user communities. The company also recently released the Clip2 Reflector, a proxy server with indexing capabilities designed to operate as a "super peer" that works in conjunction with one or more Gnutella servents to enable a "brokered peer-to-peer" networking model. Although the actual file transfer is still handled directly between peers, the rationale is that using a network management application to broker the search requests improves network performance overall. The Java-based application requires a Java 2 Runtime Environment (JRE), Standard Edition, Version 1.3.0 (or equivalent) and is compatible with all software implementing version 0.4 of the Gnutella protocol.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Collanos Workplace

Virtual collaboration has never been more simple, secure and practical. Within minutes you can be sharing documents, having online discussions, and managing tasks, all in a single, consolidated space. Built on reliable peer-to-peer technology, Collanos Workplace software allows you to work anywhere, anytime, both online and offline.

Collanos addresses the growing pains of teams being overloaded with information scattered across various communication channels, notably congested email inboxes. Ad-hoc cross-organizational teams easily and securely access, update and share team knowledge locally on their computers within the context of their activities. Teams can reach their goals faster and more effectively. The base version of the product is offered free of charge and is available for Windows, Mac and Linux.

Collanos was founded in November 2003 and has offices in San Francisco and Zurich, Switzerland.


Collaboration, P2P
Colloquia Colloquia is a Java-based P2P collaboration tool with a built-in network browser interface designed to support and encourage self-organizing groups. Users primarily interact through P2P text messaging, and can share local files or resources downloaded from the Web. Originally developed with the aid of grants for UK Higher Education, the program was inspired by theories of the importance of conversation in human activities, and the importance of context to conversations. Colloquia was designed as a tool for distributed learning, for activities such as teachers providing assignments then directing the resulting conversations, peers setting up study circles, or groups using the software as a project management tool.

Colloquia is free to non-profit educational establishments. It supports Windows 95/98/98SE/ME/NT/2000/XP, MacOS X, AIX, Solaris, Linux, HP-UX, Unix and other Java-enabled Platforms. The program requires Java 2 (included in the download package), a processor speed of 200 MHz or better, 64 Mb of RAM (128 Mb recommended) and 40 Mb of free space. A dedicated email account for the program is also recommended.


Collaboration
Consilient, Inc. Consilient, Inc. builds software using a many-to-many Peer-To-Peer network infrastructure, which shares some characteristics of email and Web browsing systems. At the core of its XML and Java-based software is a new kind of intelligent process agent known as a "Sitelet": a small, portable applet. Sitelets are mobile J2EE/XML-based web applications that contain both the code required to present a user interface and the data required to manage the process instance. Created for e-business, Sitelets connect individual applications and transactions to create an infrastructure for sharing information in a Peer-To-Peer fashion.

Sitelets record all activity throughout the course of their participation in a virtual process. Sitelets are self-contained and asynchronous that can operate on any client or server in any location that are executed by, and move between, instances of a Java run-time environment called a "Peer". Peers may be extended to include a wide variety of process enhancing components, including task oriented templates (e.g., a purchase order), domain-specific logic (e.g., contract management), Sitelet processing services (e.g., digital signature) or gateways to existing applications. A Sitelet SDK is available.
Agents as Peers, Infrastructure
DataSynapse DataSynapse is a global provider of application virtualization software. The company's flagship products, GridServer® and FabricServer™, virtualize business-critical applications and adaptively provision them across a real-time infrastructure. DataSynapse drives business agility through shared services, helping clients reduce the cost and complexity of their IT infrastructure. The company is headquartered in New York City and can be found at www.datasynapse.com.
Distributed Computation
DigitalOwl, Inc. DigitalOwl, Inc. is the developer of KineticEdge end-to-end Digital Rights Management (DRM) software and services. The KineticEdge packaging tool is TitleFusion, a Windows application for embedding metadata information (such as royalty, brand, and price information) into a content file during encryption. It can also assign different rights to different parts of a document, known as "micropackaging". TitlePool is an Oracle 8i-based content repository, where additional metadata is added to enhance searching. TitleWave handles sales to consumers, including tracking licenses and storing customer profiles. Vision is Windows client software for viewing KineticEdge content. Supported file formats include XML, the Open EBook (OEB), PDF, JPEG and HTML. Catalyst is the name of the available support and consulting services. Clients can pick all or only specific KineticEdge components (except TitleFusion, which DigitalOwl must handle). Content is hosted on a distributed Peer-To-Peer network, which enables a variety of online intellectual property transaction usage models, including pay-per-use. KineticEdge uses Certicom encryption (which supports wireless devices) and relies on proprietary digital certificates rather than a third party certificate authority.
Licensed Media Distribution
Distributed.net Distributed.net is a non-profit organization, founded in 1997, to promote distributed computing and develop applications that enable it. The project says its efforts now encompass thousands of users around the world, and its computing power has grown to become equivalent to that of more than 160,000 Pentium II, 266-Mhz computers working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.
Distributed Computation
Dynaptics Dynaptics Personal E.ssistant products are designed to analyze visitor behavior within a website and deliver relevant content. The product family consists of the Personal Sales E.ssistant (PSE) and the Personal Information E.ssistant (PIE). The sales model is designed to provide predictive on-screen messages and recommendations based on real-time information and historical sales data. The information model is designed to tailor the content and navigation of a website "on-the-fly" by analyzing the information the visitor is viewing. Personal E.ssistants are available from Dynaptics as stand-alone or hosted applications. More information and an FAQ are also available.
Servers/Services as Peers
Ecocys Technologies Ecocys Technologies develops the TaskShareTM infrastructure, a set of content/data-management tools that use familiar web-based technologies (the Web, e-mail, peer-to-peer computing, and wireless connectivity) to link people, data and devices together into a cohesive collaborative process management system. TaskShare leverages open standards-based technologies such as Java, XML, HTTP, JINI, SQL and SSL, to create a peer-to-peer collaborative technology platform, enabling the creation and management of both lightweight and heavy-duty business processes on-demand. Ecocys Product Suite's Easelet Administrator provides wizards for customizing the configurations of the peer-to-peer infrastructure's service components, while its Process Builder Wizards allow users to create ad hoc "task teams" that share and exchange data, documents and multi-media objects. Team members can collaborate in real-time via chat, video conferencing, instant messaging and e-mail, before integrating the results into the company's existing corporate database.
Agents as Peers, Collaboration, Distributed Objects
Eikon Eikon is a Java -powered prototype for distributed image search engine software. The engine receives the URL of an image, then locates a user-defined number of similar images on the network. The query image may be in a wide range of forms, for example a thumbnail, scan, video capture or user-generated drawing. Image metadata can be retrieved via Extensible Markup Language Remote Procedure Calls (XML-RPC).

The Eikon project employs the Fast Multiresolution Image Querying method, which is described in a white paper (mrquery.pdf, 446k) by Charles E. Jacobs, Adam Finkelstein and David H. Salesin of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington. This page provides links to documentation for the Eikon Application Programming Interface (API), additional research references and a FAQ.
Distributed Search Engines
eLiberation eLiberation is a two-year-old Internet software company that uses its "relational micro-transaction technology" to offer streaming and downloadable file tracking, reporting and revenue allocation. Its Integrated Peer Commerce System (IPCS)provides digital content owners with a method of commercializing the distribution of their digital media within a peer-to-peer environment ("superdistribution"), that includes: high volume micro-payments, royalty tracking and revenue distribution, content distribution control, protection of intellectual property and copyrights, marketing control and back-end reporting. IPCS is made up of three smaller services/mechanisms: a Financial Transaction Management (FTM) tracking and reporting service, a Digital Rights Management (DRM) access control mechanism that allows publishers and artists to manage their own intellectual property rights and Rich Information Files (RIF) that enable new marketing opportunities to be provided at the point of sale by allowing value-added sales and marketing information to be included along with the digital content distribution.

eLiberation's first commercial implementation of its Financial Transaction Management model is ePilot.com, a cost-per-click search engine that pays its members to search for information using the company's patent-pending ePilot application. The ePilot site performs over 3 million micro-transcactions every day. eLiberation has also partnered with Groove Networks to provide a branded version of its FTM software to Groove's File Sharing users.
Licensed Media Distribution, Superdistribution
eMikolo Networks The "Demand Driven Access" (DDA) suite of appliances from eMikolo Networks is designed to create an "Intelligent Distribution Network" (IDN) by reducing the cost of content distribution and increasing network performance and scalability. The DDA suite achieves this through the use of various content and distribution management techniques enabling a network to scale to its maximum capacity. This product is not yet available for review.
Licensed Media Distribution, Superdistribution
Endeavors Technology, Inc. Endeavor's products (Magi Suite) focus on document management and control over the Web using Java technology and open source standards such as HTTP, WAP/WML, XML, especially for its work flow sharing product. Document management and control includes remote document control, including authoring, publishing, sharing, manipulation, approval, collaboration and more in a secure and scalable way over the Web.
Devices as Peers, Security
Engenia Software, Inc. Engenia developes Unity, which is "XML-based web-enabled software for managing corporate and personal data." In other words, it's a collaborative workgroup solution. Unity is a virtual distributed file system that lets users share information, no matter where it resides. In Unity, information is stored in an object that possesses context. Objects in turn are discovered, managed, and maintain currency and relevancy through their relationships with other objects. The content of an Engenia Unity object is its set of properties and methods that define its behavior, user interface, and interaction with other objects. Objects can communicate with each other without the need for a centralized administrator. As each new object enters the system, it can easily interact with existing ones. The company's management team consists of former IBM and Lotus executives. It was founded in 1998, and is currently in second round of financing.
Collaboration, Distributed Objects
Entropia Download the Entropia app to your PC, and it uses your computer's idle resources in distributed computing applications for philanthropic organizations.
Distributed Computation
Eudora Qualcomm's e-mail client, Eudora, integrates P2P technology into its existing e-mail services. Users running Eudora can share and synchronize files within a directory on their local machine. The Eudora client uses "ESP" (Eudora Sharing Protocol) to insure that each user has the most recently updated files and information when files are transferred to other clients within a defined user group. Eudora supports all standard e-mail features, including the ability to import data from other mail clients such as Outlook, Outlook Express and Netscape Messenger. Eudora is available in three different distribution "modes". A FAQ and white paper are also available.
File-Sharing
Everything Everything Development Company's "Everything" is a MySQL/Perl-based information management system for entering, linking, and retrieving information that can also be used to create "writable" web sites. Everything's community-building features include a "Chatterbox" to enable realtime communication between users and a voting system that helps establish trust among users.

The Everything home page provides a working example of the "writable" platform in action, and also features news, poetry and commentary from the Web at large. Other example implementations include: a collaborative writer's workshop application, a system for tracking client browsing patterns, a collaborative database of pop-culture and a travel advice website.
The Writeable Web
ExactOne, Inc. ExactOne, Inc. enables real time searches of dynamic data residing throughout the Internet via its ExactOne Query Engine. The specialized Java application consists of a front-end Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request server that deals directly with end users via browsers or online applications, and a back end query and parsing engine. Results of searches can be returned as a formatted HTML page or an XML data stream. Dynamic data, or information in Web pages and databases that changes frequently, has traditionally been difficult to mine. A typical use of ExactOne's technology would be a shopping bot that accepts the type of item and price range desired from a shopper's Web browser or cell phone, and returns a formatted page of links to matching items available in real time.
Distributed Search Engines
eZ eZmeeting is a peer-to-peer application aimed at facilitating virtual meetings. Its features include a real-time shared whiteboard, real-time chat, and file sharing.
Collaboration
Fairtunes Fairtunes is a free, voluntary, digital music payment system that allows music fans to voluntarily send money to, compensate or tip, any artist for their work. Fairtunes empowers any artist to receive money online in the form of a voluntary payment. Fairtunes' FreeAmp is a multi-platform music listening program used to access Fairtunes artist web pages. A FAQ is available for more information.
Licensed Media Distribution
Fatbubble, Inc. Fatbubble is an instant messaging and file sharing client that's all about "hanging out" with your digital buddies. The creators of Fatbubble are major web surfers and IM users who wanted to create a system for sharing recommendations on local restaurants and entertainment in addition to the normal IM and file sharing features (IM tools, browsers, e-mail, and phone service). With Fatbubble, users can check out each other's bookmarks, music and book collections, and social calendars, or find out if any of your friends' friends happen to be at the same party. The company plans to make its services available to PDAs and mobile phones in the near future.
File-Sharing, Messaging Frameworks
File Rogue, Inc. File Rogue, Inc. is the developer of File Rogue, a Java based Peer-To-Peer file sharing client application and service for Windows, Macintosh or Linux. File Rogue users must create an account for themselves (free) and then create a "Personal Catalogue" of files. The list is uploaded to the "Global Catalogue" on the File Rogue Server. At launch time, the user may perform searches of the catalog of shared files or browse through categories. Instant messaging service is also available. Users are required to download and install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), which requires about 13Mb of memory, in addition to that required by the client.
File-Sharing
Filetopia Bitmap Multimedia is the developer of Filetopia, a free communications software that includes instant messaging, chat, e-mail, a powerful distributed file sharing system with a search engine, an online friends list and message boards. Filetopia's file sharing tool includes public key encryption and a choice of strong ciphers to protect the IP addresses of its users.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing, Security
FirstPeer FirstPeer provides a development framework for facilitating "Dynamic Distributed Marketplaces" that have more functionality, increased scalability and lower costs than most server-based centralized marketplaces. Features include: enhanced real-time trading, visibility of entire inventory, no increased overhead, cooperative interactions, analytic tools and tracking and the ability to receive monitored reports for the entire marketplace. FirstPeer's platform is based upon the Domain Naming System (DNS), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), XML, Extensible Markup Language Remote Procedure Calls (XML-RPC) and Jabber protocols.

FirstPeer's Java-based Professional Servant is a thin client file sharing application that is able integrate directly with existing data sources (JDBS, XML, or CSV). Professional Servant supports Windows, Macintosh and Unix. The company has posted a form for persons interested in obtaining its Personal Servant application or the plug-in required to by its GnuMarkets active marketplace.
Development Frameworks, Distributed Search Engines
Flycode Flycode offers a web-based peer-to-peer secure file-sharing network for the automatic distribution and digital rights management of video and image files using Preview Systems Inc.’s ZipLock Technology. ZipLock provides content owners with a digital rights protection and management tool for: specifying payment requirements, placing limits on the length of time a file can be viewed, or limiting the number of users allowed to share a file. Flycode's secure network uses Microsoft's Windows Media Digital Rights Management technology, and its Windows-based Flycode Client Application requires Internet Explorer 4 or later.
Licensed Media Distribution, Security
Freenet: The Free Network Project Freenet is a large-scale peer-to-peer network that depends on the power of member computers around the world to create a massive virtual information store open to anyone to freely publish or view information of all kinds. Freenet lacks any centralized control or administration and allows information to be published without identifying its source or its physical location.

The Freenet Network consists of many computers on the Internet each running a piece of software called the "Freenet Server" or "Freenet Daemon" that enables a computer to become a "node" (a small but equal part of the larger Freenet network).

The system provides a flexible and powerful infrastructure capable of supporting a wide range of applications. It enables the anonymous and uncensorable publication of material ranging from grassroots alternative journalism, provides a method for the distribution of high-bandwidth content, and provides a platform for universal personal publishing. A Quickstart and User's Manual will help get you started if you're interested in participating.
Infrastructure, Reputation and Asset Management
Frontcode Technologies Frontcode Technologies develops the WinMX application, a Win32 Napster protocol client. The program offers file sharing, chat, simultaneous connection to multiple networks, operation behind SOCKS4/5 (Socket Secure 4 and 5) and Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) based networks, and intelligent queuing options. WinMX also supports any file type, allowing access to a diverse assortment of shared files, including video.
File-Sharing
FurthurNet FurthurNet is a Gnutella-based P2P music cataloging and trading network. About 400 bands, including the Grateful Dead and Phish, have given permission for recordings (typically of live performances) to be traded legally.

The Java-based system employs Packet Chain Protocol (PCP), which enables cascading downloads, and Antelope, which allows the same file to be downloaded from multiple hosts, to improve downloading performance. Beta version 1.5.9 or later of the free Furthur client is required for Phish downloads. (The band withdrew permission because of the availability of some unauthorized material on the network, and renewed when the problem with the software was addressed to the band's liking.)

In addition to distributed file sharing, Furthur offers chat, detailed music cataloging and the ability to search on a large number of attributes. Furthur requires a Java 2 runtime environment and provides clients for Windows, MacOS X and Linux. The client software is distributed under a non-commercial, open source license.
File-Sharing
Gaim This is the home page for Gaim, an open source America Online Instant Messenger (AIM) clone. Gaim also has a SourceForge project page at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gaim. The client interoperates with AIM, Yahoo, I Seek You (ICQ), Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and Microsoft Network (MSN). Gaim supports Berkeley Software/Standard Distribution UNIX (BSD) and Linux.
Messaging Frameworks
Global Network Computers Global Network Computers' patented Borgbuster technology is a peer-based security system that uses a "hybrid firewall" that runs on the client that can be configured to both detect and prevent security intrusions. Most effective when hardware-based, Borgbuster's special new hybrid firewall can be configured to protect a specified portion of the PC. Global Network Computers is currently developing licensing arrangements.
Security
Globus The Globus project is developing the fundamental technology that is needed to build computational grids. Grids are persistent environments that enable software applications to integrate instruments, displays, computational and information resources that are managed by diverse organizations in widespread locations. Grid applications often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries.

The Globus project is centered at Argonne National Laboratory’s Mathematics and Computer Science Division and the University of Southern California’s Information Sciences Institute. Major partners include the National Computational Science Alliance, the NASA Information Power Grid project, the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure, the University of Chicago, and the University of Wisconsin.
Distributed Computation
Glue Technology, Inc. Glue Technology, Inc. delivers an open, Java and XML-based platform for integrating distributed applications and Web services in a seamless manner. Glueware is Glue Technology's premier software engine that serves as an open integration platform for bridging between legacy systems and applications for real-time collaboration and business process automation. Glueware's open-architecture conforms and supports business, industry, and technical standards, protocols, and technologies, such as SOAP, UDDI, WSDL, JXTA, BizTalk, ebXML, RosettaNet, .NET, HTTP, XA, XAML, XSL, WML, Open Applications Group (OASIS), and more. Clients include Qwest, Cablevision, Bellsouth, Advanced RadioTelecom (ART), Reuters, Telegea, Slamdunk Networks, Inc., Neon, KPMG, DTCC and Duke Energy.
Infrastructure
Gnotella Gnotella is a distributed real time search and file-sharing program run from a user's desktop as a client and a server (a "servent") on the Gnutella peer-to-peer network. Gnotella allows users to interface directly with each other with no intermediate, central authority, and search for and share any type of digital file (audio, video, word processing documents, recipes, games, and text files). The Gnotella client is designed for the Windows environment and offers features such as multiple simultaneous searches, resumption of partial or failed downloads, improved filtering/spam protection, bandwidth monitoring, enhanced statistics, upload throttling, skinning and other features.

Gnotella's open architecture allows for the program to be customized to target consumer and business communities. Gnotella's parent company, Petapeer Holdings, Inc., will continue to distribute the program freely while it develops a committed user base. Once that user base is in place, the company plans to begin charging for Gnotella upgrades and deluxe features. Petapeer Holdings Inc. does not monitor the activity of, collect or sell information about the users on its network.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Gnutella Gnutella is a fully-distributed information-sharing technology. Each piece of Gnutella software is both a server and a client in one, because it supports bidirectional information transfer. Installing any of several available clients is all that is needed to become a fully functional Gnutella site. Then find a few other sites that are willing to communicate: some may be friends, while others may be advertised Gnutella sites. The client communicates directly only with the handful of sites that it's agreed to contact. Any material of interest to other sites is passed along from one site to another in store-and-forward fashion.

Gnutella is an open source project with clients registered under the GNU License.
File-Sharing
Groove Networks Groove Networks was founded by Lotus Notes creator Ray Ozzie. The company's flagship product, Groove 1.0, is a groupware application (the company likes to refer to it as "peerware") that enables groups of collaborators to form in a decentralized ad-hoc fashion. Groove enables group members to interact in highly secure shared spaces to support collaborative editing in real time. All of a group's documents, messages and applications are stored and replicated across user machines so that all of a group's members can access the materials online or off. Groove Enterprise Network Services provides an outsource model for component management security services. Groove Networks has an extensive developer program. A Groove Development Kit (GDK) containing resources for building tools, skins and Groove-based solutions is available for download. Presentations, white papers and a collection of FAQ are also available.

Check out the OpenP2P.com article featuring Groove: "How Ray Ozzie Got His Groove Back".
Collaboration, Infrastructure, Security
grub.org Grub, Inc. authors a distributed computing client utilizing P2P technology. The initial client applicationis a distributed web crawler. The distributed crawler network will have the capacity to index, on a daily basis, every web page residing on the Internet. The index will be kept in a centralized database, on Grub's servers.
Distributed Search Engines
HailStorm HailStorm is a blanket term for a collection of Microsoft technologies, peer-to-peer related and otherwise (e-mail, instant messaging, alerts and notifications, addressbooks and Microsoft's Passport authentication technology) that were announced by Bill Gates as part of Microsoft's .NET platform. Windows XP and Office XP will ship with core elements of HailStorm built into them. The HailStorm architecture is based on SOAP and XML, using common identity, security, and data models for each of its HailStorm services so that they may be accessed from any minimally connected device.

Check out these OpenP2P.com articles about Hailstorm: Hailstorm: Open Web Services Controlled by Microsoft by Clay Shirky and Brewing a HailStorm by Rael Dornfest.
Infrastructure, Servers/Services as Peers
Harmonic Invention Software Harmonic Invention Software's Direct File Express Private System of private filesharing servers have numerous security features built into them. All users uploading or downloading files must have a valid account, and permissions can be configured at the account, group or file level. A demonstration of the Direct Private File Trader product is available for download.
File-Sharing, Security
Hotline Connect Hotline is a P2P-Client/Server hybrid system for community building and file sharing that has been in operation since 1997. Hotline Connect is a suite which includes both a Hotline Client application and a Hotline Server application (available via separate downloads). Hotline works over any Internet or Intranet network and has capabilities similar to File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Internet Relay Chat (IRC), but using its own "Hotline Protocol". Features include resumable uploads and downloads, real time chat, newsgroup style forums, and streaming capabilities in numerous media and file formats. The program's search function is used to locate servers, rather than the files of individual users. The Hotline Client, which has approximately a million active users, provides an easy-to-use interface and small memory requirements (2 MB).
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Human-Links Human-Links is a distributed searching environment that categorizes public information in a personalized and relevant manner in order to generate accurate responses tailored to each user's specific needs. The program functions as a shared neural network, based on a group of technologies that fall roughly within the disciplines of cognitive science and artificial intelligence, and derived from algorithms that stem from research in data compression and natural language translation. The "brain" of Human-Links' complex classification system identifies conceptual patterns in media documents to determine their actual meaning, so that it can be situated in relation to other works of greater or lesser relevance. Using this method, the system is able to develop a sense of how each user organizes the world as opposed to imposing a standardized cultural or linguistic lexicon. The system is designed on an open-source platform with public sockets targeted at third-party development communities.

Human-Links is owned by Amoweba, a cognitive science research and development company specializing in enterprise applications of neural networks, artificial intelligence and human-centered ergonomics. The company is actively seeking individuals interested in beta-testing and is even offering incentives (a vacation package to anywhere, Palm PDAs, and DVD players and discs) to entice test participants to turn in comprehensive results and refer friends to the program.
Distributed Search Engines
IBM SashJab SashJab is an Instant Messaging client from IBM based on the open source Jabber technology. It is part of the Sash Weblication family, a platform for application development using existing web technologies such as HTML, DHTML and XML to create lightweight Sash "weblications". The idea is to migrate application development from traditional C++ type programming languages to the simpler "SashScript", a superset of JavaScript that allows the program to be executed in its native platform code. Simply put Sash allows developers to create applications from existing web-technologies that will run independent of the web browser. The SashJab application is developed using an XML framework which allows the user to interface with a variety of Instant Messaging clients including: AOL's Instant Messenger and ICQ. See the FAQ for more information.
Messaging Frameworks
ICQ ICQ (I Seek You) is freely distributed peer-to-peer communication client that supports file transfers, instant messaging, real time chat, e-mail integration, voice messaging, telephony, SMS, and a host of other plug-ins. User connections are validated through the ICQ server, and optionally published in member directories, where they are searchable and can also provide information on a member's online status. In addition to an FAQ and new user guidebooks, ICQ offers an extensive set of developers tools, including groupware for system administrators, web site enhancement tools, and application development tools for modifying or creating new plug-ins and interfaces based on the ICQ API.
Collaboration, Messaging Frameworks
Ikimbo, Inc. Omniprise is Ikimbo's enterprise-level groupware application framework. Omniprise provides a unified platform for inter-organizational communication, including support for: instant messaging, group email management, real-time and asynchronous group communication, and file sharing (both client-server and peer-to-peer). Privacy, security and group administration tools are also included.
Collaboration, Messaging Frameworks
iMaestro iMaestro is focused on e-commerce applications of P2P technology. The first product, iMaestro Interact, offers a peer-to-peer auction network.
Servers/Services as Peers
iMesh Ltd. iMesh is a free program and service that helps users find their favorite content over the Internet. iMesh Ltd. is attempting to provide a perfectly legal distribution channel for its user base by entering into distribution agreements with copyright holders. This makes it easier for its users to locate and obtain their desired files (photos, source files, homework, or home made videos, etc.).

The company's Legal Notice doesn't pull any punches about its software's complete lack of privacy protection or security features, going as far to suggest that users are placing themselves at an unusually high level of risk by using the software.
File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
IMPP The goal of the IETF's Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol (IMPP) Working Group is to define a standard protocol so that independently developed applications of instant messaging and/or presence can interoperate across the Internet. This working group will eventually define the protocols and data formats necessary to build a cohesive internet-scale messaging system capable of: end-user presence awareness/notification, instant messaging, user authentication, message integrity, encryption and access control.
Messaging Frameworks
Infobot Infobot is a Perl-based online fact gathering service that relies on the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) protocol. The fact-gathering involves factoids, perhaps another useful online research tool.
Agents as Peers
InfraSearch InfraSearch (a.k.a. gonesilent.com) was acquired by Sun Microsystems in February to become part of Sun's JXTA (Juxtapose) project. InfraSearch, a technology prototype of a fully-distributed search engine, was orginally based on the Gnutella technology but has since been moved to a proprietary framework. Infrasearch was built by Gene Kan and other Gnutella developers, and the founding engineering team has roots in UC Berkeley's Experimental Computing Facility.
Distributed Search Engines
iNoize iNoize.com is a web-based application and music service that allows users to share music without infringing on the copyrights of music companies or their recording artists by "sharing" using a stream rather than actually creating a copy of the copyrighted material. The company has been collaborating intensely with the music industry on an e-commerce system that will benefit all parties involved by providing users with on-demand music, while providing music companies with a new venue for showcasing their music and offering an option to buy it.

Music on the iNoize network is organized in a three-tier streaming system (Artist - Album - Title) rather than the kinds of file-based systems used by other "sharing" networks. The music is streamed in real-time, using a secure, encrypted patent-pending framework which essentially eliminates the need or desire to copy by making the desired music selections accessible on demand. Playlists of favorite songs can be created using music from other iNoize.com members and users can creat playlists, share them with other users or even purchase their favorite CD's while on-line, if they choose. iNoize is available for download on the Windows 98, NT, 2000 (Version 1.10) and Linux (Intel)(Version 1.10). (A Macintosh version is on the way.) A tour of iNoize's service is also available.
File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
Intel IAS Intel's Internet Authentication Services (IAS) is a comprehensive system for enabling secure transactions for the e-health industry. The service provides a centralized location where all authentication activity can be handled, enabling the messages themselves to be distributed via a peer-to-peer network or any other kind of network. It is able to authenticate all different kinds of complex healthcare-related transactions and also provides a system for managing such transactions. Intel provides a number of Demonstrations of its IAS services in action, as well as a Reference Center of white papers.
Security
Intel Philanthropic Peer-to-Peer Program Intel is working with the scientific community on a distributed computation project that enables the average PC user to perform acts of PC Philantropy, or the donation of unused computing resources to benefit charity. Intel's goal is to build the largest virtual supercomputer to date with cooperative-computing software that will link millions of users to a P2P network passing processing power to medical researchers. Users can currently download software to help the United Devices Cancer Research Program search for new drugs, or help the Stanford Alzheimer and Amyloidogenic Disease Research Program study protein misfolding. To participate users need an Intel-compatible PC with 48 Mb of RAM, a 500 Mb hard drive with 20 Mb free, an internet connection and an 800x600 256 color display. The United Devices Cancer Research Program software requires Windows 95/98/ME/2000/NT4/XP. The Stanford Alzheimer Research Program requires Windows 2000/NT4.
Distributed Computation
Interbind Interbind software supports open, secure, low-cost business-to-business systems based on Web Services delivered across a peer-to-peer network. Web Services are self-contained, modular business applications that can be described, published, located and invoked over the Internet. Interbind software acts to extend and connect various Web Services while routing and translating the data traffic among Web Service users. Interbind recently released its Interbind XML Messaging Server (IBX), available as a free download at its developer website, which includes HTTP 1.1 and SOAP support. Interbind's Messaging Server transports XML-based messages to and from nodes offering Web Services in a peer-to-peer network. Features include: pre-built XML message envelopes that support a variety of message types, Java-to-XML serialization/deserialization, support for secure peer-to-peer connections, and lightweight memory and processor requirements. Use of the Interbind XML Messaging server requires an XML parser that is either SAX2 or DOM compatible and Sun's Java Runtime Environment. Development using the message server requires JDK 1.2 or later.
Messaging Frameworks, Servers/Services as Peers
International Interactive Commerce, Ltd. International Interactive Commerce, Ltd. (IIC) creates distributed Internet server software. IIC's technology uses software agents to break up and re-distribute rich media and applications by utilizing unused portions of Internet bandwidth to deliver the reassembled package to endusers.This provides a solution for delivering rich media, for example, with no streaming on the server side or increased bandwidth requirements. The company calls this optimized use of currently underutilized network resources Distributed Internet Server Technology. Distributed Internet Server software is Java2 compliant, and does not require changing existing applications systems or rearchitecting of existing server environments. The IIC Research and Development team includes scientists formerly employed at IBM, Sprint, GE, GTE, SilkNet and XEROX.
Agents as Peers, Distributed Computation
Invisible IRC Project Invisible IRC Project (IIP) is anonymity software for Internet Relay Chat (IRC) clients that was originally inspired by point to point anonymity encryption protocol networks as demonstrated by Icecast and Shoutcast. IIP operates as a sophisticated proxy between IRC servers and clients. An IIP network offers IRC communications that are both anonymous and secured by 128 bit encryption. A future version currently in development will drop servers from the architecture to become a completely decentralized anonymous IRC protocol.

IIP suports Unix, Portable Operating System Interface for Unix (POSIX), OS X and Windows 95/98/CE/ME/NT/2000/XP. The IIP download package is distributed under a Berkely Software/Standard Distribution (BSD) license.
Messaging Frameworks, Security
Jabber Jabber started out as an idea for an instant messaging platform but has since been adapted by its creator, Jeremie Miller (of JavaScript parser XParse fame) to become an XML message routing platform. Jabber the company (Jabber.com) was originally started as an open source project (Jabber.org). JabberCentral is a place for open source and commercial development communities to exchange propaganda, code and ideas about the technology. The Jabber Developer Zone is where the open source development codebase and tools are published.

Check out two OpenP2P.com articles written by Jabber.com's own DJ Adams: You Have Mail! and A More Sensitive Mail Notifier .
Infrastructure, Messaging Frameworks
Jabberzilla This site is devoted to Jabberzilla, a Jabber client that installs into Mozilla-based browsers. Jabber is an Instant Messaging (IM) client that interoperates with I Seek You (ICQ), America Online Instant Messenger (AIM), Yahoo, Microsoft Network (MSN), and other protocols all through a servent using the Jabber XML messaging protocol. The site includes an on-line XUL-based (XML User Interface Language) Jabberzilla installer. After running the installer, launch Mozilla (or Netscape 6). Jabber will appear in the browser's sidebar. Opening and closing the sidebar once makes Jabberzilla appear in the sidebar.
Messaging Frameworks
Jibe Jibe has recently released its Enterprise File Sharing v 1.0 beta. Jibe customers can participate over a public network or set up a private secure P2P hub between suppliers or partners. Any storage system that can be accessed through JDBC or ODBC can participate, including Microsoft Access and Excel spreadsheets.

Jibe provides a Java servlet that can interpret the XML for each taxonomy and present a Web form to an end user. A Jibe application can run standalone, or a company licensing Jibe can store a single servlet on an internal Web server and let its employees do searches through their browsers. Users can simply type a string into the application's "GO FIND" box, and let Jibe do the retrieval, ranking, sorting and display. Jibe's storage format and taxonomies are both defined in XML. Support for JXTA is planned in the future.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Jini Jini from Sun Microsystems provides simple mechanisms that enable devices to plug together and communicate without any planning, installation, or human intervention. Each device provides services that other devices in the community may use. These devices provide their own interfaces, which ensures reliability and compatibility.

Sun has released the Alewife beta Jini Starter Kit, a beta version of its upcoming Jini Technology Starter Kit 1.2. Features include virtual machine sharing using Jini services and a multithreaded implementation of Jini Helper Utilities. Specifications and programming examples are also available.


Devices as Peers
Jungle Monkey Jungle Monkey is a Unix-based file sharing service developed by the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department University of Michigan. It's designed to let users create their own file-sharing channels, browse other users' channels, and "efficiently [use] bandwidth by finding the closest client with the file you want."
File-Sharing
JXTA Juxtapose (JXTA) was originally one of Bill Joy's research projects aimed at developing a network programming and computing platform able to solve a number of the problems in modern distributed computing. JXTA has since become a community-based open source development platform. The four main concepts of the JXTA project are: the ability to "pipe" from one peer to another, a grouping notion, the ability to monitor and meter, and a security layer. The JXTA Shell is a prototype application that illustrates the use of JXTA Technology. The JXTA Shell permits interactive access to the JXTA platform's building blocks through a simple, text based interface (available on Solaris Operating Environment, Linux, or Microsoft Windows). A Technical Specification provides a description of the architecture and key elements of the Project JXTA technology including: peers, advertisements, messages, pipes and protocols. Demonstrations are available for download. See the FAQ or the documentation page for more details.

Check out OpenP2P.com's Project JXTA Developer Contest.
Distributed Search Engines, Servers/Services as Peers
Kalepa Networks, Inc Kalepa Networks is a "provider of Internet content delivery infrastructure". Individual investors included George Hoyem and Glenn Osaka of Redleaf Ventures, Rick Serafini of Serafini Capital, Chris Shipley, Executive Producer of the Demo Conferences, and executives at Excite@Home, Marimba, Robertson Stephens and Ziff Davis. The company is currently in "stealth mode".
Infrastructure, Licensed Media Distribution
KaZaA KaZaA's P2P file sharing network allows users to search for and download audio, video, image and text files using one of three interfaces: the KaZaA Media Desktop Peer-To-Peer (P2P) client, KaZaA's Winamp Plug-in or the KaZaA.com web site. KaZaA's distributed network is "self-organizing" and features the ability to automatically transform more powerful clients into "SuperNodes" able to broker the search query requests of the weaker nodes on-demand. (See the FAQ for more technical details). The service is currently free, but KaZaA anticipates a small fee in the future in light of the lawsuits against Napster and Scour. KaZaA's core technology is based on KaZaAlib, a platform independent C++ library comprised of 59 functions. (The company has not yet formalized an open source development program.)
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Killdara Killdara has developed a family of products using an XML open architecture to create a platform for universal data exchange. The products include Killdara's Paraphrase Engine, that, when triggered by a specified event, generates an XML document from various data sources (such as relational databases) and distributes it via the Web, e-mail or FTP, to any "interested partners". Killdara's b2b Messenger, designed to assist and enable B2B (business to business) transactions, performs similar functions while also supporting digital encryption and "signatures". Killdara's Health Data Courier features similar document distribution methods, and is designed to conform to existing medical information standards, such as the HL7 XML templates. White papers and a FAQ are available for review.
Development Frameworks, Security
Magnetar Games FX Visuals is the first product in Magnetar Games' FederationX family of peer-to-peer internet gaming development tools. FX Visuals is a development tool for C++ Builder and Delphi used to expedite the creation of Internet multiplayer games using Microsoft's DirectX technology. A trial version of FX Visuals is available. The company is also planning to release additional products in the FederationX line that may or may not be game-related.
Gaming
MangoSoft Mangosoft's suite of software solutions uses a patented technology known as "pooling" to address the needs of small businesses, workgroups and large enterprises. Pooling is a clustered caching technology that utilizes the network and resources on PC and workstations to deliver software services normally associated with servers.

Mangosoft's products include Cachelink, a software-based web caching product that increases the delivery speed of Internet and intranet content to end-users, and Mangomind, a business user file-sharing application.
Distributed Computation, File-Sharing
Manila Manila is a content management system from Userland. Manila allows groups of people to publish Web sites, and it is particularly suited for developing weblogs. Each page on a Manila site is editable directly in the browser. Editthispage.com is an example of a Manila installation that is open to anyone who wants to build a weblog.
The Writeable Web
Meerkat: An Open Wire Service Meerkat is a Web-based syndicated content reader. It is based on Rich Site Summary (RSS), an XML specification used for distributing news, product announcements, discussion threads, and other assorted content as channels. Meerkat provides a simple interface to these stories. While maintaining the original association of a story with a channel, Meerkat's focus is on chronological order -- the latest stories float to the top, regardless of their source.

Meerkat includes an Open API that users and developers can use to incorporate the news feeds into their own sites or web-based applications.
Servers/Services as Peers
Mithral Communications & Design Inc. Mithral produces developer tools under the Cosm product family name. Cosm Phase 1 is a set of open protocols and applications designed to allow distributed computers to work together on projects. The project may be a mathematical challenge, or rendering an animation, or writing. Cosm also involves building the libraries, APIs, and standards that are required to make those types of applications easy to develop for every kind of system.

Mithral has released a Client Server Software Development Kit to enable developers to write large scale client-server applications, including distributed computing and peer-to-peer applications.
Development Frameworks, Distributed Computation
Morpheus Morpheus, available from MusicCity Networks, Inc. is a distributed file-sharing network based on the KaZaA code base. (Morpheus and the KaZaA Media Desktop client provide uniquely-branded interfaces to different breeds of what amounts to the same underlying network.) Like Napster, Morpheus is a closed system that requires the use of a centralized user registration and logon system. However, Morpheus differs from Napster in that it does not maintain a central content index or subject its network to content filtering. The Windows-based Morpheus client is available for download and contains an embedded version of Microsoft's Windows Media Player.

See the OpenP2P.com article: "Morpheus Out of the Underworld" by Kelly Truelove and Andrew Chasin.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Movable Type Movable Type is Perl-based Web publishing software. The focus of the program is easing the linking, text editing, uploading, page creation and site maintenance work required to publish a frequently updated news- or journal- style blog. Features include page customization via templates, multiple template publishing to multiple destinations, support for multiple authors governed by a permissions system, grouping of entries into categories, a comment system for reader feedback, multiple weblog support, support for the Blogger Extensible Markup Language Remote Procedure Calls (XML-RPC) Application Programming Interface (API), the ability to pre-date or post-date entries, a hold status for entries, remote posting, RDF Site Summary (RSS) support, flexible archiving options (monthly, weekly, daily, by entry, by category) and an email notification system.

Movable Type requires Perl 5.004_04 or later, a browser with cookies and Javascript enabled, an FTP client and either a server or an account on a server that allows custom CGI scripts. The library-driven system is extensible by Perl coders. Movable Type is distributed under a user license specifying prohibited online activities. The program is free, with a small donation encouraged.
The Writeable Web
mozBlog mozBlog is an open source blogging interface for the Mozilla browser. It implements the Blogger Application Programming Interface (Blogger API) in a sidebar component, enabling the user to maintain a blog via Extensible Markup Language Remote Procedure Calls (XML-RPC) messaging from the Mozilla sidebar.

mozBlog works with blogging tools that support the Blogger API, like Blogger, Moveable Type and Radio Userland. This site provides links to installation instructions, a user manual, the source code, a mailing list and screen shots of the interface.
The Writeable Web
MusicBrainz.org MusicBrainz Metadata Initiative was formed to organize a means of exchanging metadata describing media files on the Internet. The vocabulary was employed in the development of MusicBrainz Metadata (formerly CD Index Project), a Dublin Core metadata application and free web service that uses XML and Resource Description Framework (RDF) to make artists names, track numbers, song titles and other metadata describing musical content downloadable to the user's CD player, MP3 player, Vorbis player, or other client. The first player to fully support MusicBrainz is FreeAmp.
Distributed Search Engines, Metadata
MusicNet MusicNet is a new platform for digital music subscription services based on RealNetworks' Internet media delivery technology that claims to be the first digital music subscription platform to offer both downloadable and streamable music. MusicNet is a joint venture of RealNetworks, AOL Time Warner, Bertelsmann, and EMI. (The ownership of MusicNet is approximately 40% Real, 20% AOLTW, 20% BMG and 20% EMI.) Rob Glaser, Chairman and CEO of RealNetworks, serves as its Chairman and interim CEO.

MusicNet will license its "private-label" platform to companies seeking to sell music subscription services under their own brands. RealNetworks and AOL are the first licensees of the MusicNet platform and expect to offer their own online music subscription services based on the platform this year. The specific details of offerings, such as price and number of downloads or streams per subscription, will be left to each MusicNet distribution partner to determine. See the FAQ for more details.
Licensed Media Distribution
myCIO.com myCIO.com is a Network Associates, Inc. subsidiary that offers Peer-To-Peer technology-based network security services. myCIO.com's Rumor service manages anti-virus updates by allowing users to serve each other virus signature files. The first five users on a network retrieve virus updates, then the update spreads throughout the network as the users serve it to one another (Rumor is named for the almost viral way the application independent service transports and propagates). Token-based authentication insures only legitimate anti-virus update files can be shared by Rumor. Network Associates feels that the Peer-To-Peer model will ultimately let myCIO.com spend less time supporting updating, and more time developing anti-virus code. PGP, Sniffer, VirusScan and McAfee antivirus technologies were incorporated into Rumor.
Security
Myster Myster attempts to duplicate Napster in every way except for the fact that it uses a completely distributed system. Although very similar to Gnutella, Myster has many optimizations that make it easier to scale than Gnutella, including a self organizing network of peers that is able to channel to only query the nodes that are most likely to contain the desired files. For instance, if one server only has a great MP3 collection and no Movie files it will only receive requests for those files. The system is also expandable so that as the network aquires more nodes, more sub networks can be created to keep searches efficient, enabling networks to eventually be sub-divided into more well-defined categories as the size of the network increases.

Myster is written in Java and available via the GNU General Public License (GPL). A full working version in either Macintosh or Windows format is available along with documention and source code.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
Napster Napster is on its way to becoming the world's largest secure file sharing network. Napster is paving the way for a new era of paid subscription services, courtesy of its new business partners: Bertelsmann AG, edel Music, TVT Records, America Online and Real Networks (MusicNet), its new technology partners: Loudeye, Gracenote, Relatable and its recently aquired Gigabeat. Napster's features include: a user-friendly interface, search capabilities, instant messaging, chat and Hot List User Bookmarks. You can still download the latest version of the Napster Client (Macintosh or Windows).

Napster claims to be taking the copyright issues it has brought so much attention to very seriously and has been ramping up on its technology over the last few months to that end. The company has been busy piecing together the technology required to enable an effective licensed media distribution network. Technology investments to date include several new acoustic fingerprinting technologies that will be used in conjunction with music databases to identify and track file usage on the Napster network. The Napster system is also now able to catch certain kinds of common filename variations that were traditionally able to circumvent its filtering processes in the past through the use of improved keyword filtering techniques. Napster has also implemented a new terms of use policy of discontinuing network access to anyone caught intentionally obscuring filenames. See the "Copyright Owners" section of its Copyright Policy for more details.
File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
NeuroGrid The NeuroGrid system currently under development consists of two main elements: a learning engine that observes user activity and updates documents meta-data accordingly, and an approach to routing search messages in distributed, decentralized networks. The NeuroGrid approach stems from two basic desires. One is to have the ability to organise data in an associative, web-like fashion (as opposed to the hierarchical structure we see in file-systems). The second is to be able to extract that data from a large distributed network environment with the minimum of effort. NeuroGrid tries to provide a more general semantic framework than that of FreeNet by creating and maintaining lists of which queries other nodes have been good at answering in the past. A Position Paper, White Paper and online demonstration are available for review.
Distributed Search Engines
NextPage, Inc. NextPage's NXT 3 e-Content Platform provides some of the world's largest information-intensive corporations with their own customized peer-to-peer file-sharing network. The company's Tools and Applications provide enterprise-sized businesses with the ability to manage and share resources securely over a distributed network in real time, using a robust application architecture that was specifically-designed to be able to scale.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing, Reputation and Asset Management
Oculus Technologies Corporation Oculus Technologies Corporation's Oculus CO is a peer-to-peer application used to increase the flow of information within an extended enterprise as a means of smoothing out the product development process and enabling people to make better decisions. Oculus P2P provides an infrastructure "glue" for integrating disparate data, applications, platforms, and organizations together using a 4-Tiered peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture to provide a completely decentralized and secure computing environment. Ford motorcompany announced that it will be using Oculus CO to enable its remotely-located design teams to collaborate with each other across numerous operating systems and applications. Ford believes that Oculus CO will provide a collaborative environment in a vendor-neutral environment that will greatly improve its design processes.
Collaboration, Infrastructure
Ogg Vorbis Ogg Vorbis is a fully open, non-proprietary, patent-and-royalty-free, general purpose compressed audio format for high quality audio and music (44.1-48.0kHz, 16+ bit, polyphonic) at fixed and variable bitrates from 16 to 128 kbps/channel that also has the ability to stream. This places it in the same class as MP3 and MPEG-4 audio files. Contrary to popular belief, MP3 is not an open format. Fraunhofer (and other MPEG consortium members) claim that it is impossible to create an mp3 encoder without infringing on their patents. MPEG-4, destined to be the next generation of internet audio, might be even more tightly controlled, and recent alliances between MPEG and the RIAA (which seeks to control all distribution) provide yet another reason to consider promoting an open source alternative.

Check it out for yourself. A download page lists the available plug-in players, encoders and development kits by platform (all are available on most platforms). For Windows developers, a Oggdrop - Drag and drop GUI encoder and a Ogg Vorbis Win32 SDK are available, as well as the Winamp, FreeAMP and Sonique players. FAQ and Documentation are available for more information.

Here are the details regarding the format's open source license: "Xiphophorus's Vorbis software libraries (libvorbis and vorbisfile) are distributed under a BSD-like license; these libraries may be used by any application, Open or proprietary, linked or incorporated in whole, so long as acknowldgement is made to Xiphophorus when using our codec source in whole or in derived works. See the file 'COPYING' in the source for all the details. All other portions of xiph.org's reference Vorbis software are distributed under the (GNU) General Public License (GPL)."
File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
Ohaha Ohaha is an open-source initiative to create a new suite of protocols that enable file sharing in a decentralized but highly scalable way and make them accessible to average users. Most of Ohaha's contributors are from the Ukraine. A Win 95/98/2000 app is available for download from Ohaha.com
File-Sharing
Onobee Onobee is a Java-based distributed collaboration and secure, real-time communications suite. It is designed to be a self-organizing network solution that scales from very small groups to large-scale corporate networks. Onobee provides plain or styled text Instant Messaging (IM), file sharing via a "pushing" transmission, audio and video teleconferencing, a collaborative white board, image sharing, a simple built-in Web browser and an online/offline email tool.

Onobee has no central server and supports Windows 98/2000/NT/XP, Macintosh, Unix and Linux peers. Operating systems other than MacOS 10.1 (or later) require Java Web Start, and video and audio functions require Java Media Framework (JMF). A free, 30-day trial version of Onobee is available for download.
Collaboration, Messaging Frameworks
OnSystems, Inc. OnSystems, Inc. (formerly InterFriendly) develops software technology called Virtual Internet Networks (VINs) that allow people to create virtual networks between PCs over the Internet. Unlike networking technologies like Napster, VINs are private secure networks.
File-Sharing, Security
OpenDesign OpenDesign's goal is to create a distributed application infrastructure by combining the best of client-server and P2P architectures to enable a network to automatically reconfigure itself to the needs of the application. This dynamic configuration of the network guarantees that applications and their underlying services, use only the resources they require, but are always available, fault tolerant, and load balanced. This inherent scalability frees applications from the limitations of a single server, cluster, or data center. Services and applications can exist anywhere in the network and share resources across the network.
Infrastructure, Servers/Services as Peers
OpenNap OpenNap is an open source effort to create a version of the proprietary Napster server. OpenNap extends the Napster protocol to allow sharing of any media type, and the ability to link servers together. OpenNap is a server for connecting the clients together, and is not a client itself.
File-Sharing
OpenPrivacy OpenPrivacy is an open source, distributed, cryptographically secure platform for sharing anonymous demographic profiles. The project aims to allow users to reap the available benefits of sharing their profile information, while protecting consumer's privacy using anonymous submissions. The platform manages Reputations, which are XML Digital Signature based objects that securely store personal profile information. Reputation Servers are agents that respond to requests pertaining to reputations. Trust capabilities of the system include complete disassociation of submitted information from the user's identity and an open system available for public inspection and auditing. One project implementing OpenPrivacy is JetsPeek, an XML-based enterprise information portal developed as part of the Java Apache Project (which is in the process of merging with the Jakarta Project).
Reputation and Asset Management, Security
Outhink Outhink has recently launched our personal networking software, SpinXpress. SpinXpress lets you work, person to person, securely, via the Net. You can exchange content, synchronize forms and data and share large files of any typeand size. SpinXpress works across firewalls and without the need for security policy change and/or the need for IT engineering support. Additionally we offer a thin client option (email w/url link) to send and receive files without requiring the person your sharing with to download the software.
Collaboration
P2PQ P2PQ is a freely-available client-server system that uses a modified instant messaging framework to capitalize on the shared knowledge of unique individuals. Users ask questions and have answers returned to them using a simple form-based interface to input or access information from any device. P2PQ's integrated feedback system filters questions and then redistributes them to the appropriate parties based on each users' pre-specified fields of knowledge. "Answers" are generated by combining a question's aggregated responses with the user ratings of each expert "source." Currently, a Windows 95/98/ME/2000/NT version of the P2PQ Client Beta is available for download. Linux and Mac OS versions are in the works.
Collaboration
Parabon Computation Parabon has two products: the Pioneer application that users download to make use of available cycles on their desktop machines, and Frontier, a platform for secure distributed computing for "compute-intensive" projects.
Distributed Computation
Peek-A-Booty Peek-A-Booty is distributed anti-censorship software that forms an ad hoc, Gnutella-like P2P network to enable unrestricted Web browsing within the 21 nations that currently restrict or censor Web access, such as China, Malaysia, North Korea and many Arabic countries.

The application takes advantage of the fact that all governments must have Web access for their own information and the nation's economic interests, and use firewalls for Web security that allow full access to themselves and restricted access to others. Computers running Peek-A-Booty form a distributed server cloud, where a small number of randomly selected computers access Web documents. To the firewall, a computer appears to be accessing documents not on the restricted list. Retrieved documents are encrypted and shared among the Peek-A-Booty peers.
Reputation and Asset Management, Security
Peer-to-Peer Trusted Library Peer-to-Peer Trusted Library is security software for Peer-To-Peer (P2P) application development. Intel has released the Library under a Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) license to encourage area development. The Peer-to-Peer Trusted Library Application Programming Interface (Peer-to-Peer Trusted Library API) offers support for signing, encryption, authentication, secure storage, and encryption for developers using C++ on Windows or Linux.
Security
PeerMetrics The PeerMetrics Peer System is a fully-featured Java peer-to-peer platform for developing distributed services. Strengths include dynamic modular protocol binding, peer and resource identification, discovery, and search, extensible metadata, XML UI definitions, remote service display browsing, and extensive API documentation. The power of the platform and available services greatly simplifies writing peer-to-peer applications. Source is included.
Internet Operating System, Servers/Services as Peers
Piper Piper can be looked at in two ways: as a distributed scripting or programming language, and as a distributed bioinformatics collaboration tool. In the Piper paradigm everything is a node, certain nodes input and output data, every node has an Internet address, and nodes can be linked to define relationships, procedural steps and data flow. A node might represent an online database, for example. Each node has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) defined in XML. The interface has XML descriptions and some widgets. In bioinformatics, for example, a user might have a molecule widget to work with. With the Pied/Piper User Interface (Pied/Piper UI), the user has access to a Peer-To-Peer graphical scripting language (or if low level objects are linked, a graphical programming language). Piper is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).
Collaboration, Development Frameworks
Planet 7 Technologies Planet 7 Technologies is the developer of the XML Network Server, a Java-based host for ecommerce or enterprise application integration networks that enables many-to-many sharing of XML data in real time. The architecture is optimized for handling ecommerce requests generated in conformance with standard XML schemas and Document Type Definitions (DTDs). The requests can be routed based on namespaces, applications, or host names. The system has been made extensible and follows a hub and router model where each XML Network Server can act as a hub. The "router" for connecting resources to hubs is created with what the company calls a "full duplex" (or bi-directional) Application Programming Interface (API) called XML Network Client Objects.

The network scales up by the addition and connection of servers in a modular fashion. Other distributed systems can use XNS as an XML handling interface. Though an agreement with Extensibility, Inc., Planet 7 is bundling a trial version of Turbo XML (which includes XML Authority, XML Instance and XML Console) with the XNS development package to expose developers to a complete network application development environment.
Infrastructure, Messaging Frameworks, Servers/Services as Peers
PLATFORMedia LLC PLATFORMedia has developed a peer-to-peer distributed computation environment and search application that uses a corporate LAN's idle computing cycles to automatically-index document content, making it more easily accessible by users across the network. The company's Search by Concept application uses statistical inferencing and optimization techniques to systematically build 'mental maps' of each user's concepts of interest. Its scalable application architecture enables the members of a network to not only exchange files, but also manage the sharing of knowledge between nodes. The PLATFORMedia environment is tightly integrated with Microsoft applications such as Word and Excel and requires Windows 95/98/NT and the Java2 Runtime Environment 1.3 (JRE 1.3) or later. A free trial of the software is available for download.
Distributed Search Engines, Metadata
Plebio Plebio is a search engine that searches all the online file databases on computers running plebio software. Plebio attempts to create a peer to peer search network that will allow anyone to share any piece of information easily and quickly. Plebio has been created by Ashhar Farhan - a software writer from Hyderabad, India.
Distributed Search Engines
Pointera Pointera's primary product, the Pointera Sharing Engine, allows users to reliably find, download, and share any file format over a heterogeneous network through the Web, using a highly customizable, secure browser technology that is linearly and inexpensively scalable to handle extremely large datasets. As part of this technology, Pointera Sharing Engine can also be described as a super search engine, which allows users to do a meta-search which automatically checks other search engines as well. Pointera says its Sharing Engine includes the following options: create cluster groups for sharing files; syndicated, customized content feeds; online communities; e-commerce transactions related to customized content downloads and general search preferences.
File-Sharing
Popular Power Popular Power closed up shop after it was unable to close the venture capital it needed to continue. Before shutting down, Popular Power's distributed computation platform was used for several non-profit efforts including a project for developing influenza vaccines. See Richard Koman's article, Popular Power Turns Off the Lights, for more details about this innovative company and its untimely demise.
Distributed Computation
Porivo Technologies, Inc. Porivo provides peer-to-peer, distributed computing technologies that harness the spare capacity of networked PCs around the world. By providing a software development kit, it allows software authors to have their programs executed by large networks of peered computers.
Distributed Computation
Project Pandango Inc. Project Pandango Inc. is a company formed by the i5 Digital LLC intellectual property development company to launch a search engine based upon their Pandango (taken from the Latin word "Pando," meaning to extend) Peer-To-Peer Web search technology. In addition, third party companies will be able to license a private label version of the search engine that employs personalization features to target a specific area, such as sports or finance. The XML-based Pandango mixes Peer-To-Peer technology with a distributed version of collaborative filtering (a technology used by the Google engine). Patterns of searches by other like-minded searchers are leveraged to arrive at what the company claims are newer and more relevant results. (Search companies using traditional methods disagree, and predict a downside of slower searches.)
Distributed Search Engines, Licensed Media Distribution
Proksim Software Proksim Software has developed an object-oriented middleware architecture and real-time information synchronization technology that allows software objects (C++ or Java) to be available to more than one machine at a time. Other features of its cross-platform communication system include: load balancing, fault tolerance for dynamic information, authentication and encryption services.

NetZ 1.0 is a gaming application that was built using Proksim's peer-to-peer interaction development platform. Multi-player online gaming applications built using the platform are capable of handling up to 16-players in a Quake-style environment over 33.6K modems, complete with congestion control, dead reckoning, fault-tolerance on the game server and the ability to have users join/rejoin a game in progress at any time.
Distributed Objects, Gaming
Prompt2U Prompt2U has developed a distribution technology for resource sharing and traffic flow acceleration within a network's infrastructure. The concept is based on placing an "agent" on each computer in the network, making it possible for resource management to be either centralized or distributed in a P2P fashion. Prompt2U claims this solution is completely scalable and that no centralized routing is used, which increases the reliability of the network. The product is not yet available for download.
Agents as Peers, Infrastructure
Publius Named for the pen name of the 18th-century authors of The Federalist Papers (Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison), Publius is a web publishing system aimed at resisting censorship by inserting a layer of encryption that protects the anonymity of a publisher. As the project's web site explains: "Publius content is encrypted by the publisher and spread over some of the web servers. ... The publisher takes the key, K that is used to encrypt the file and splits it into n shares, such that any k of them can reproduce the original K, but k-1 give no hints as to the key. Each server receives the encrypted Publius content and one of the shares. At this point, the server has no idea what it is hosting -- it simply stores some random looking data. To browse content, a retriever must get the encrypted Publius content from some server and k of the shares. Mechanisms are in place to detect if the content has been tampered with."
Security, Superdistribution
Radio Userland Radio UserLand is a "personal radio station". It acts as a music organizer and player that lets people program music for themselves, and share their creations with others, over the Internet.

Radio UserLand also works as an HTTP server. Users can designate a folder they want to share; any playlists in that folder are available over the Web, to build community of people sharing lists of music they like. (Radio UserLand only distributes playlists and usage data in XML format. It cannot be used to distribute MP3 files or other types of media.)
File-Sharing, Metadata
Radio Userland Radio Userland is Web publishing software that implements a both a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server and client on the user's desktop to house a blogging environment. On installation Radio automatically builds and publishes a weblog, which the user then learns to customize via any browser.

Windows users have access to a WYSIWYG HTML editing tool built upon Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE) WYSIWIG Edit Control. Radio users receive free hosting and 20 Mb of space, or any other host may be used via a standard File Transfer Protocol (FTP) account setup. The desktop server is useful for working offline, and upon reconnection to the permanent host all changes are automatically uploaded. Radio's feature set includes an outliner for HTML, XML and other editing and content management functions, a Weblog editor for static blog sites, a live outline editor for Userland-style dynamic live outline sites, an HTML directory editor, automatic conversion of content to RDF Site Summary (RSS) feeds for subscription and syndication, email notification, categories, multiple weblogs, several archiving options, RSS feed aggregation, Manila integration, referral list viewing and notification, creation/sharing of MP3 playlists and built-in threaded P2P chat.

The program also has a script interpreter and editor/debugger, a built-in object database, a native programming language, Radio Community Server (RCS) for individuals or organizations to host communities, and support for HTTP, FTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol (POP), Javascript, Extensible Markup Language Remote Procedure Calls (XML-RPC) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 1.1. Radio Userland works with Windows 98/2000/NT/XP and Macintosh Classic or OS X. A free evaluation is available for download.


The Writeable Web
Rapigator Rapigator, a Napster work-a-like designed for the OpenNap server to give users the ability to search on the Napster network for any file type. Rapigator also features support for resuming failed downloads, chat, bandwidth throttling and control, the ability to search multiple servers and server listing auto updating. The very small (483 KB) Rapigator client is available as a free download. A FAQ is also available for review.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing
RDF The Resource Description Framework, developed at the World Wide Web Consortium, is a "declarative language and provides a standard way for using XML to represent metadata in the form of statements about properties and relationships of items on the Web."
Metadata
REBOL REBOL (Relative Expression-Based Object Language) is a messaging language developed by the designer of the Amiga OS, Carl Sassenrath. REBOL is currently serving as the platform for REBOL/Express, a distributed computing application for the Internet that consists of REBOL/Link on the client side and REBOL/Server, a lightweight management server that compliments the existing web server. The REBOL/Core kernel runs on over 40 different operating systems, supports most third-party applications and data sources, and enables direct P2P connections, file synchronization, collaboration and messaging. A technical overview, FAQ and a selection of application downloads for REBOL are also available for review.
Distributed Computation, Internet Operating System, Messaging Frameworks
Redfoot Redfoot is a Python-based framework for distributed Resource Description Framework (RDF) applications written by James Tauber and Daniel Krech. Redfoot offers an RDF parser and serializer, a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server that provides a Web interface for editing/viewing/importing RDF, a query Application Programming Interface (API) for RDF with many high level query functions, a customizable User Interface (UI) and the ability to perform Peer-to-Peer (P2P) RDF data exchanges. Future development plans include major expansion of the P2P architecture so Redfoot applications have a robust environment for discovery of RDF statements on peers, an inference engine, example applications built upon Redfoot, and connectors that map non-RDF data to RDF triples. Redfoot is distributed under a Berkeley Software/Standard Distribution (BSD) license.
Development Frameworks, Distributed Search Engines
Reptile Reptile is Java and XML -based distributed content syndication and management software with privacy protection from co-founders of the Jakarta Jetspeed project. The extensible architecture integrates several Web and P2P technologies to combine a Hypersonic SQL (hsql) persistent back end database with content exchange and search engines, enabling users to securely locate/share/publish/subscribe to Web-based content.

Reptile runs within Tomcat and offers support for Open Content Syndication (OCS), Extensible Style Language Transformations (XSLT), all versions of RDF Site Summary (RSS), Sierra Reputation Management Framework (RMF), Public Key authentication, and Structured Query Language (SQL) result to XML serialization (with JDOM and Xalan extensions). It supports all P2P networks, including Freenet, Gnutella, Jabber and Project Juxtapose (JXTA). The Reptile download package is distributed under both The GNU General Public License (GPL) and Berkely Software/Standard Distribution (BSD) licenses.
Messaging Frameworks, Reputation and Asset Management
RightsMarket Inc. RightsMarket Inc. provides software and services that facilitate the commercial superdistribution of digital content over distributed networks and the Web. The company's flagship product/service (available as both) is "RightsPublish", an end-to-end digital publishing and intellectual property rights management system designed to provide a secure and reliable platform for the distribution of intellectual property, usage tracking and billing.

The end result is a web-based digital intellectual property network where everyone participating is either a publisher, a consumer or both.
Licensed Media Distribution, Superdistribution
ROKU Roku develops a commercial peer-to-peer computing platform and products that enable people to view, use, and share information across all wired or wireless devices and networks.

The Roku platform, written in Java and XML, consists of three categories of components that give Roku software application and device independence, as well as "plug-and-play" flexibility. The Roku Platform uses context to link together relevant information for people —- combining it with peer-to-peer networking.
Internet Operating System
RSS 0.91 Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91) is lightweight syndication format for distributing news headlines on the web. It is a format that originated at Netscape for syndication of content through Netscape Netcenter. The format was also influenced by the the Channel Definition Format, which Microsoft defined and saw its window of opportunity open and close with "push" technologies. Userland.com built and hosted the first RSS aggregator outside of Netscape. Dave Winer of Userland formalized the Netscape specification as RSS 0.91.
Metadata
RSS 1.0 RSS ("RDF Site Summary") is a lightweight multipurpose extensible metadata description and syndication format. RSS 1.0 is a new version of RSS 0.91 that supports modular extensions. RSS is an XML application, conforms to the W3C's RDF Specification and is extensible via XML-namespace and/or RDF based modularization.
Metadata
SETI@home: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI@home is one of the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) projects that searches for extraterrestrial life. SETI@home allows anyone with a computer and an Internet connection to take part in the search. By using the computer while the owner is away, the SETI@home screensaver is able to search for extraterrestrial signals.

Most of the SETI programs in existence today build large computers that analyze data from the telescope in real time. None of these computers look very deeply at the data for weak signals nor do they look for a large class of signal types, because they are limited by the amount of computer power available for data analysis.

To tease out the weakest signals, a great amount of computer power is necessary. It would take a monstrous supercomputer to get the job done. SETI@home is about using thousands of small computers, all working simultaneously on different parts of the analysis to do the job.
Distributed Computation
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a lightweight, XML-based, protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. Its primary uses are message passing and remote procedure call (RPC) -- causing a remote computer to perform a computation.

SOAP is XML-based and has three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses.
Servers/Services as Peers
SmartPeer, LLC SmartPeer, LLC, an affiliate of ToadNode.com, is the creator of the SmartPeer network appliance and software. The SmartPeer device ships with SmartPeer's embedded proprietary Peer-To-Peer networking software. The appliance allows brick and mortar retailers to cooperate in a network that helps customers locate products. The device works by communicating information from a local point of sale or inventory system to the distributed network. The SmartPeer software fields an inquiry from the Internet, and translates it into a query the local system can understand. It then translates the result of the query back into a format the original sender will understand. SmartPeers can handle queries among the members of the peer community without a central server, and are Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) enabled for mobile commerce applications.
Devices as Peers
Softwax GUTS Media LLC develops Softwax, a Peer-To-Peer file sharing application for Windows 95/98/NT/2000. The software is primarily intended for licensing to Internet Service Providers (ISPs), portals, digital asset distributors, web sites, corporate intranets, and other locations where it's desirable to install a turnkey solution for adding P2P file sharing with security management. The company calls this focus "legitimate, niche file sharing". Users do not have unrestricted access to peer files in the secure environment.

The Softwax Broker component monitors each P2P transaction and authenticates it with a secure key. It also performs virus checking and can be set to disable infected files. Softwax can also employ filters for copyrighted materials. The system does not offer chat or instant messaging. The Softwax site includes a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) digest, and an online demonstration Softwax application called Shareshack, a P2P enabled e-zine for snowboarders that allows users to search for and download various media files. (Interacting with the demo requires a Windows based browser.)
File-Sharing, Security
Songbird Songbird is a client-side application specifically designed to work within the existing Napster network. Songbird is the latest offering of Media Enforcer LLC. Songbird is freely-available for download and also offers several artist-related features, such as enabling an artist to receive a "snapshot" of a song's popularity on the network. A recent Wired News article felt that the most useful of the program's features was its ability to create an Excel file of user names and files (although IP addresses are not provided). The Songbird FAQ claims the program is able to work effectively with many common song title variations (such as Aimster's Pig Encoder, etc.).
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
SongSpy, Inc. SongSpy is a free-music network whose members earn "Karma Points" by downloading files and making their own hard drives available to the network. (In the future, Karma Points will be redeemable towards SongSpy merchandise.) The freely-available SongSpy client includes an MP3 player and an intuitive, skinnable graphical user interface that currently only runs on Windows (although support for Mac and Linux is planned for future releases). SongSpy's own SnapDragon protocol combines a Napster-like centralized server with Gnutella-like distributed peers to create a hybrid network which utilizes the best file-sharing features of both models.
File-Sharing, Reputation and Asset Management
Spinfrenzy.com Spinfrenzy.com is a membership-based media-sharing site for MP3s and video clips. It includes forums and web site hosting. Targeted at the "Generation Y" market, they also plan to support a variety of shopping-related services.
File-Sharing
Splooge, Inc. Splooge, Inc. develops the Splooge application, a centralized-server based Peer-To-Peer media sharing application that allows Splooge members to share their media files with other members online, as well as download any media they might be interested in from other members. The Splooge application communicates to the Splooge server system via Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and a proprietary protocol. Transfers are true Peer-To-Peer and do not travel through the Splooge servers.
File-Sharing
Static The Static Platform is part operating system, part browser, combining a server and client into a single download smaller than most MP3's. It brings users to a single location where they launch different internet "applets" (plugin-like applications) and it ties these applets together in a seamless environment. With this integrated approach, each applet benefits from key built-in features such as security and optimized bandwidth management.

For example, when a Static-enabled PC is struggling to stream video to its users, the technology reroutes some of streams to other PCs the network isn’t exploiting to capacity. To make money static will sell its software to ISPs, which in return will offer piecemeal bandwidth and caching for their users.
Distributed Objects, Superdistribution
Swaptor, Ltd. Swaptor, Ltd. is the developer of Swaptor, a Windows application for Peer-To-Peer sharing of all file types. Swaptor organizes users into interest groups, and like minded communities link for file sharing opportunities. The service is currently ad-based. The Swaptor application offers resumable downloads, chat, buddy lists, private messages, remote user info, file search and OpenNap support. It runs on Windows 95/98/ME/2000.
File-Sharing
Terazima, LLC. Terazima provides distributed resource management products and solutions based on distributed computing technology. Terazima's peer-to-peer meta client enables multiple peer-to-peer networks to be accessed simultaneously, resultiing in greater positive search results and optimized file transfers. TeraPlatform is the company's distributed computing framework for building applications. TeraDrive is an end-to-end distributed storage management solution. An SDK is available upon request.

Terazima's core technology provides for the rapid development and deployment of new peer-to-peer protocols and clients that provide a range of varied services including: client/server communication, data-collection and analysis, on-line commerce, promotional integration, video file sharing and enterprise-friendly superdistribution. See Terazima's News section for details about the company's recent business partnerships and press coverage.
Development Frameworks, Superdistribution
Texar Corporation Texar Corporation's s-Peer is a Peer-to-Peer client that uses a security architecture for peer-to-peer networking and selective file sharing on the Web. s-Peer supports Windows, Solaris and Linux. It is currently available as a free download at www.s-peer.com. The Java-technology based toolkit includes features supporting policy-based access controls, unique digital identities, secure communications, and data integrity and validation. To demonstrate these security enhancements, Texar has developed a peer-to-peer file sharing and collaboration application based on s-Peer. Texar has released the source code for s-Peer under its own license. See the FAQ and white paper for more of s-Peer's technical details.
Agents as Peers, Security
The Chord Project Chord is a "flexible lookup primitive" intended for use in decentralized peer-to-peer environments based on the SFS user-level file system toolkit. The Chord primitive maps keys to servers in a decentralized manner and requires only log(N) messages to perform the mapping where N is the number of nodes in the system. Although Chord has been used primarily to build peer-to-peer file systems, it has the potential to be used in a wide variety of peer-to-peer applications. An implementation suitable for distribution is in the works. A tutorial and lots of great publications are currently available.
Internet Operating System
The Free Haven Project The Free Haven Project intends to deploy a system that provides a good infrastructure for anonymous publication. Elements of this system include:

  • the publisher of a given document remains unknown
  • clients requesting the document do not have to identify themselves
  • the current location of the document is not known
The overall design is based on a community of servers (which as a whole is termed the "servnet") where each server hosts data from the other servers in exchange for the opportunity to store data of its own in the servnet. Communication (both between the servers and between the servnet and readers) relies on an existing mixnet infrastructure to provide an anonymous channel.

The system is designed to store data without concern for its popularity or controversial nature. Free Haven is designed more for anonymity and persistence of documents than for frequent querying. It is expected that in many cases, interesting material will be retrieved from the system and published in a more available fashion (such as normal web pages). Then the document in the servnet would only need to be accessed if the other sources were shut down. A number of white papers are available onsite.
Infrastructure, Reputation and Asset Management, The Writeable Web
The Mind Electric The Mind Electric is developing GLUE, a Java based modular platform for building and invoking distributed web services. GLUE has a small footprint (it's distributed as an embeddable 200K JAR file) and can expose any unmodified Java object as a web service. It is designed to be platform, protocol and transport neutral, and to interoperate with Apache SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), Microsoft .NET Framework and IBM Web Services Toolkit (WSTK). GLUE includes a micro-web server, servlet engine, SOAP processor, XML parser (Electric XML), dynamic Web Structure Definition Language (WDSL) generator, Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) client, UDDI server, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) support, and an XML persistent storage system. GLUE services can be deployed via a browser, runtime APIs, or drag and drop, can be dynamically installed across a network, or stored in JAR files and loaded remotely. The Mind Electric site includes the online GLUE Application Programming Interface (API).
Development Frameworks, Servers/Services as Peers
The uServ Project uServ is a Java-based P2P work collaboration system based on the IBM Almaden Research Center's XML-based Vinci. Vinci is a wide-area service-oriented architecture that has similarities to (and is made to interoperate with) technologies such as Jini, .NET and E-Speak. (See Vinci: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Rapid Development of Web Applications for more about Vinci.)

Unlike file sharing programs and protocols like Napster or Gnutella, collaborative programs like Groove or Lotus Notes, Instant Messaging (IM) programs like I Seek You (ICQ), or dedicated servers like Apache, uServ is designed to allow users to pool resources for publishing, hosting and file sharing using no special hardware, no special software and the common existing protocols Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Domain Name Service (DNS).

Each user installs uServ and is assigned a domain name (based upon their email address) that always identifies that machine, including machines that are assigned Internet Protocol (IP) addresses dynamically by their Internet Service Provider (ISP) and/or are behind a firewall. Content that is shared with others in a resource sharing group persists when individual computers are shut down. uServ currently serves approximately a thousand users on an IBM Almaden Research Center intranet. IBM is working on some additional deployments, but ultimate licensing and deployment are currently undetermined. The uServ FAQ says, "License agreements are possible but the process is complicated."
Collaboration, Messaging Frameworks
Thinkstream Thinkstream's distributed information and e-commerce platform and Tadaaa! client software provide small to medium-sized merchants with the tools to configure and organize a "public information network" (online marketplace) quickly, easily and without requiring any substantial modifications to their existing network infrastructure. Thinkstream's own online marketplace provides direct, real-time access to product information and pricing, as well as detailed rating and comparison information about its participating vendors. The Tadaaa! file-sharing application allows users to exchange just about any file type (document, video, music, database, images or even spreadsheets) within a secure environment. The program's search technology is capable of searching within file content for metadata or to satisfy a variety of other, more complex kinds of queries. A white paper describing Thinkstream's Distributed Internet Architecture and the theoretical justifaction behind it (A Technology Review of the Next-Generation Internet Architecture: Thinkstream’s Distributed Internet Architecture -- 35 pages, Requires Adobe Acrobat) is also available for download.
Distributed Search Engines, File-Sharing, Infrastructure, Internet Operating System
Toadnode.com, LLC Toadnode.com, LLC. produces Toadnode, a free, multi-language, peer-to-peer file sharing application. Toadnode is compatible with Gnutella and works with computers running most versions of Windows. The most current version bundles Clip2 DSS (as part of its QuickConnect feature), which crawls the network and analyzes it to provide the best-positioned nodes on the network. The list is continuously refreshed, and all nodes are confirmed to be active.
File-Sharing
Tpresence, Inc. TPresence, Inc. was founded by Carnegie Mellon scientists in 1997 to provide a "distributed web solution" for online businesses. The company is using P2P to create an interactive, collaborative web experience, using shared resources. The company's IntelliPresence Network Architecture is comprised of: the Content Distributor server, the Distributed Web Coordinator and the Distributed Web Engine. The three combine to provide a distributed network server to an individual's desktop. IntelliPresence is free to end users. A browser plug-in provides a three-paned interface consisting of: the Connector (a navigation selection tree), a Virtual Reality/3D browser and a conventional 2-D browser. Multiple users are able to share documents or rich media data in a peer-to-peer or peer-to-many fashion. Tpresence was a Pentium 4 launch partner, and the software is characterized by Intel as a business-optimized collaborative 3-D data sharing tool.
Collaboration, Infrastructure
Trillian Trillian is a P2P file sharing and Instant Messaging (IM) program with an XML-skinned interface. It provides messaging and buddy list compatibility with several IM clients, including I Seek You (ICQ), Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Microsoft Network Messenger (MSNM), Yahoo Instant Messenger (YIM) and America Online Instant Messenger (AIM). AIM compatibility is periodically blocked by America Online. Trillian allows users of multiple services to bring all buddy lists and clients into one interface. A Jabber plugin may be included in a future release.

This site provides links to the download package, additional skins and a Community forum where users interact and the company posts announcements and offers technical support. Trillian is distributed under a freeware license and supports Windows 95/98/ME/2000/NT/XP.
Messaging Frameworks
Tripnosis, Inc. Tripnosis,Inc. is the maker of Tripnosis, a Peer-To-Peer file sharing system that allows users to search for, download, and share any type of file, including: MP3, ASF, WMA (windows media audio), WMV (windows media video), JPG, EXE, DLL, ZIP, images, photographs, and saved tracks and scenarios from games. Tripnosis also offers a built-in chat feature.
File-Sharing
Tuneprint Recordings that sound identical to humans actually have unique psychoacoustical differences. Geoffrey Schmidt, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) student, is one of the first to develop an audio fingerprinting algorithm taking advantage of this principle. The audio fingerprint does not change when the sound is compressed, changed to a different file format, broadcast over the radio, passed through an MP3 encoder, re-equalized or played at a different speed. The resulting Tuneprint technology is developing around the tuneprint.com site set up by Schmidt for incubation. Tuneprint utilizes a model of human hearing used to predict how audio will appear after it's been distorted by the human ear, and the parts of neural processing that are understood. This is some of the same information that led to MP3 encoders achieving exceptional audio compression. Characteristics that uniquely identify the track are then identified by picking out the most important, surprising, or significant features of the sound.

Possible distributed audio applications include building netplay popularity charts based on real time global live play, more capable music search engines, improvements in musical file sharing (sorting, categorizing, removing duplicates), digital rights, practical micropayment systems for artists and enabling record companies to tag a track as copyrighted in real time upon request.
Licensed Media Distribution, Security
Ubero Ubero stands for "universal binding and execution of redundant objects." Essentially, Ubero is a distributed object computing platform that unites an unlimited number of computers connected to the Internet to achieve certain computing tasks.
Distributed Computation
UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) specification is an industry initiative lead by Ariba, IBM, and Microsoft that defines a platform-independent, open framework for describing services, discovering businesses and integrating business services over the Internet.

UDDI was designed to provide existing directories and search engines with a centralized source for programmatic descriptions of business Web services.

The UDDI Business Registry will allow Businesses to publish their preferred terms of conducting e-commerce or other transactions for other UDDI-enabled agents to "discover".
Distributed Search Engines, Servers/Services as Peers
United Devices, Inc.: Individuals Accelerating Science United Devices makes use of spare resources (such as idle PCs) connected to the Internet. They supply customers such as corporations and research facilities with the computing resources required to solve large computational problems, run financial analyses, or find cures for diseases. A PC download will soon be available in order to enable the public to participate in projects.
Distributed Computation
Veriscape Veriscape's IntelleCat (Intelligent eCatalog Procurement Assistant) is a knowledge-based dynamic catalog management system that enables purchasing professionals to search, find, retain and implement their own tailor-made best-practices on a global scale. IntelleCat's adaptive searching techniques save the state of "successful" search queries as tree-based hierarchical data structures. These stored query trees collectively provide the semantic framework used to regulate the program's inventory tracking and purchasing management features.

IntelleMatch is the subcomponent that enables IntelleCat's adaptive matching engine. Nomenclature issues are resolved via a dynamically-constructed reference database of eCatalog product descriptions structured in a thesaurus-like fashion using a customized semantic infrastructure generated by "matching" to the cognitive makeup of an individual user. Veriscape's products utilize its patent-pending Netcentric Virtual Supercomputing Infrastructure (NVSI) architecture. NVSI is designed to "plug and play" within existing networks and runs on top of standard operating systems, such as Unix, Linux, and NT.
Distributed Search Engines, Infrastructure
Virtual Access Networks Virtual Access Networks manufactures The Van, an XML, XSLT, SOAP and Cocoon-based solution that utilizes Microsoft's Intellimirror PC Migration technology to enable companies to move settings and data from one computer to another intact, via a wireless, Web or network connection. The VAN's software migration tools can be used to restore user settings after an operating system upgrade or facilitate the OS migration of an entire company. A hard drive crash inspired the founder to use extensible tools to apply fluid solutions to the field of data storage. The resulting XML-based core technology is known as Access Technology and defined as "the vendor-neutral, device-agnostic, and cross-platform delivery of information and data."
Distributed Objects, Internet Operating System
Vitaminic Vitaminic is become a larger player in the european digital music rights license and distribution market and has recently announced the acquisition of its London-based rival Peoplesound.com in a 34 million-euro deal. Vitaminic runs 10 locally-managed sites, in 8 different languages and claims to have over 2 million unique users every month. Vitaminic hosts a catalogue from over 700 labels, from the largest of majors to the smallest independents. Artists are encouraged to register and start taking advantage of the promotional opportunities it is making freely available. The "Vitaminic network of music" extends beyond the Vitaminic website itself to include some of Europe's major Internet portals, ISPs and mobile operator and its catalog is syndicated out to several major music channels including: Yahoo, Lycos, Excite, MTV and Gay.com. Vitaminic works with the music industry on its own terms, paying both performance and mechanical royalties, even got its free promotional downloads. Vitaminic claims it offers what amounts to Europe's first music download subscription service: the Vitaminic Music Club. Its Backstage service provides other free promotional opportunities for bands, artists and musicians.

Vitaminic embraces all industry standards of encryption and is also set up for broadband and wireless technologies. Vitaminic is designed to integrate non-intrusively into an artist's other existing online activities. Managed promotional campaigns across the Vitaminic network are free for Vitaminic Labels and include comprehensive linking and fan e-mail services. Vitaminic works on a completely nonexclusive basis and with no fixed term. A collection of great resources on the website include a nice listing of MP3 Software organized by Operating System. A FAQ is also provided.
File-Sharing, Licensed Media Distribution
vTrails vTrails offers a cost-effective media delivery solution that leverages the power of peer-to-peer networking, smart routing and edge network capabilities. The vTrails System delivers high quality streaming content to large audiences while reducing bandwidth consumption by up to 90%, turning rich media from a traffic jam into a powerful business tool.

Watch the flash demonstration here

The many features of the vTrails System make it a compelling solution for Webcasters, Enterprise, ISPs, CDN and Streaming service providers:

  • Monitoring: Real-time system performance monitoring
  • Scalability: Supports any size audience of end-users without degrading the QoS
  • Quality of Service: Supports disconnections, network surges, high packet loss
  • Firewalls: Interoperates with most firewalls and proxies
  • Corporate LAN and NAT: Network load and bandwidth consumption minimized
  • Security: No access to data on disk and no command can be executed by the System
  • Cryptography: All streams are encoded and encrypted
  • Formats: Integrates with all streaming formats

Infrastructure, Superdistribution
VXNET Virtual X:/net Technology (VXNET) is a secure, distributed networking application and a platform for rapid development of P2P applications. VXNET users are able to set up "Persistent Communities", private networks where P2P file sharing and communications with trusted individuals may be enabled over broadband, wireless or dial-up connections. VXNET is free of spyware and advertising, and includes Instant Messaging (IM) and 128-bit file encryption.

VXNET was constructed in Java, XML and C++, and offers a path to development in .NET and Sun One environments. The VXNET site provides a free downloadable Preview Version 1 and online User Guide. VXNET requires a Pentium 100 or better processor, 32 Mb of RAM, 5 Mb of drive space, Internet 4 or later with cookies turned on and an Internet connection.
Infrastructure, Messaging Frameworks
Wannafree Welus is the developer of the Wannafree Peer-To-Peer communications application. Wannafree offers several knowledge sharing methods, including news group, Internet board, real-time chat and Instant Messaging (IM). A primary focus of the product is support of anonymous operation. The application keeps Internet Protocol (IP) addresses confidential and uses ID codes as identifiers rather than personal information. When using the Secret Group feature, communications between registered group members are encoded with a 1024 bit encryption key. The Wannafree protocol changes its topology simultaneously and non-periodically to make the network architecture difficult to trace. Wannafree supports Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000. 10 Mb of installation space, a Pentium and 32 Mb of RAM are recommended (a 486 with 16 Mb of RAM is supported). The program is available as a free download and a Manual is also provided.
Collaboration, Security
WebDAV WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) is a set of extensions to the HTTP protocol being developed at the IETF to allow users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web servers. A recent trend towards running web servers everywhere (e.g., on laptops) means WebDAV can be used for file sharing and other P2P uses.
Collaboration, File-Sharing
WebPager WebPager is a Java-based peer-to-peer client application that enables a "host" peer to control another peer's "client" web browser (or other application) remotely. The WebPager architecture consists of a very simple custom-protocol that communicates over TCP/IP and a socket-based server/client. Remote machines can listen for messages and act on them by launching the necessary application to process the web page, url or document name passed to it. The utility also supports peer-to-peer multi-slide remote url presentations, even through a firewall, because remote client peers only "listen". They don't talk back. The application was designed to provide a lightweight content pointer mechanism that is capable of sending messages to numerous remote clients at the same time, providing PowerPoint-like slideshow capabilities without any of the overhead (weighs in at 41K). The Java application can use either the MS JVM (.exe version) or a Sun JVM (with the JAR executable version).

The application is also an extremely powerful remote administration control utility. Access control is provided for remote connection security, and a complete logging is provided of all access attempts. WebPager's interface will automatically determine your IP address and host name so so users can easily exchange contact information. Michel (Mitch) Gallant works for a major Canadian telecommunications corporation as an Internet applications and security architect. He maintains an Internet web site which provides extensive technology demonstrations of the burgeoning multi-vendor code-signing infrastructure: http://home.istar.ca/~neutron/java.html. He can be reached at neutron@istar.ca.
Agents as Peers
WebV2 WebV2 provides an application platform and network infrastructure to enable commercial peer-to-peer applications. Its approach goes beyond simple file searching and sharing and extends to B2B collaboration between peers in the supply chain, or to enable direct knowledge exchange within enterprises. WebV2 architecture is based on networked intelligent agents, capable of scaling up for commercial use.

The company was founded in early 2000, and has been incubated and financed by Siemens Technology-To-Business Center in Berkeley, California.
Agents as Peers, Distributed Search Engines
Wiki Wiki Web Wiki Wiki Web is set of pages of information that are open and free for anyone to edit as they wish, through a web interface. The system creates cross-reference hyperlinks between pages automatically. Anyone can change, delete or add to anything they see.

Although not strictly peer to peer, wikis foster a more direct, person to person, exchange of information between participants, needing no moderator or administrator.
The Writeable Web
WorldOS Corporation WorldOS is an application server for decentralized applications like Napster, Gnutella or Freenet. It is structured basically like a web server. A request for a resource comes in; the request is directed to some kind of user-created program that provides a resource. User-created programs are a lot like CGI scripts or Servlets. So, overall, WorldOS lets you provide dynamic content in a P2P environment.

The user interface and engine are coupled via TCP instead of object code in order to make it simple to plug in alternate UIs. It allows you to plug in protocol handlers in pretty much the same way you'd plug in a CGI script. The base code comes with protocol handlers for WorldOS protocol and HTTP. You could hook up a handler for the Gnutella protocol, or SMTP, or Napster, or whatever, and your running instance would not only be able to map incoming requests in that protocol to CGI-type scripts, it would also be able to route messages from nodes using one protocol to nodes using another protocol.
Development Frameworks
WorldStreet WorldStreet Corporation's WorldStreet Net provides a collaborative peer-to-peer networking platform for exchanging information and conducting secure global ecommerce transations. Its collaboration features can be integrated into a financial firm's existing applications, workflow and business processes within any type of networking environment (web, extranet, private network, peer-to-peer).
Collaboration
WSDL The Web Services Description Language 1.1 (WSDL) grammar describes Web services, including: interface and end points (or ports), what a service can do, where it resides and how to invoke it via machine-understandable terms targeted for automated distributed communications between Web applications. WDSL can extend Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), and this Note describes and includes bindings for using WSDL in combination with SOAP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) for remote process invocation. WDSL is itself extensible, with a common binding mechanism that may be used to produce binding extensions for other protocols.
Servers/Services as Peers
XDegrees XDegrees is developing software that will manage the flow of metadata in Peer-To-Peer networks. CEO (and Adforce founder) Michael Tanne and co-founders Anand Rajaraman and Venky Harinarayan (also co-founders of the Junglee shopping bot company) think P2P metadata, if utilized, can be more valuable than the data itself. In an environment where information and applications will be pushed out onto the network, rather than residing on servers, the software will also provide infrastructure services such as caching, messaging, naming and routing. The platform will also enable the development of P2P applications utilizing existing web development technologies, such as Active Server Pages (ASP) and Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts.
Metadata, Servers/Services as Peers
XML-RPC XML-RPC was designed to provide simple cross-platform distributed computing. It uses XML and remote procedure calls to communicate information from one server to another. A precursor to SOAP, it was developed in early 1998 by Dave Winer of Userland, Don Box of DevelopMentor, and Microsoft. The XML-RPC spec and implementations helped develop an awareness that XML was more than just a document format and could be used for standards-based transaction processing.
Servers/Services as Peers
XNS (eXtensible Name Service) XNS (eXtensible Name Service) is an open protocol and open-source platform for universal addressing. Essentially, an XNS address is a permanent identifier for a container of data that could be personal data such as your contact information.

XNS is a platform for "web agents" to negotiate the exchange, linking, and synchronization of information among different parties. An agent might make sure that your version of a person's contact information is up-to-date by checking it against the XNS address.

XNS says that Web agents are based on technology patented by Intermind, one of the players in the once-popular "push" technology space. There are three patents involved, and they have been licensed to XNSORG, an independent non-profit organization responsible for governance of the XNS global trust community. All XNS agencies and agents are required to register with XNSORG.
Metadata

XOBJEX XOBJEX is a simple and lightweight application for peer-to-peer collaboration, based on Sun's J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition). This very compact system (26KB) uses a HTTP "listener" and a HTTP "agent" to transfer XML-based commands across networks or the Internet using port 80, the default port for HTTP. XOBJEX can be used to create web services for collaboration and interoperability between networked devices, and can automatically "discover" when new services are available on the network. More information about XOBJEX features and an online demonstration are available for review.
Distributed Objects, Servers/Services as Peers
xS xS is an open source Java-based personal digital asset management system that enables people to organize anything they have that is digital--audio files, pictures, videos, etc., and share them with others. It also empowers users to control to define how they share different assets with others by storing complex meta-data about users' digital assets. xS comes out of the box with support for 3 different network protocols: XML over HTTP, RMI, DXP, xS' own custom protocol. The network protocols are written in an XML dialect I have created called Dax, so alternate clients can be written in other languages as long as they talk Dax. It has a pluggable network protocol architecture and a pluggable "ingest" architecture that provides a simple interface that can be used to build new ingest engines. (An "ingest engine" is code that reads a digital asset and determines initial meta-data from that stream, for instance, to analyze video for scenes and content.) xS comes with an MP3 ingest engine that reads MP3 ID3 tag info. xS stores its meta data in a pure-Java relational database, InstantDB. Other features include: multi-lingual capability (English, French, Dutch, and Spanish), multi-byte character set support, and the ability to perform complex queries, such as a search for "all songs with the word rain in them by the cure and the cult".
Distributed Search Engines, Reputation and Asset Management
Yenta Yenta is a fully-distributed, peer-to-peer coalition-formation system that autonomously determines users' interests and then automatically forms discussion groups, in which users who share one or more interests may send secure real-time messages to each other, either one-to-one or in groups. The system was originally developed as part of Leonard Foner's doctoral dissertation at the MIT Media Lab's Software Agents group. Yenta demonstrates how combining a distributed design which does not rely on any one central point with cryptography and reputation management can solve many of the problems otherwise encountered by systems trying to protect sensitive information from crackers, subpoenas, and malicious interlopers. Yenta's web site also provides source code, precompiled binaries, many papers, and Foner's doctoral dissertation.
Agents as Peers, Reputation and Asset Management
ZetaGrid ZetaGrid is a platform-agnostic, open source grid architecture currently working on a proof for the Riemann Hypothesis, one of the most important unsolved problems in modern mathematics. The problem, which deals with the distribution of prime numbers, has remained unsolved since 1859 despite significant prizes that were offered for its solution. A solution could lead to a simple method for determining whether a number is a prime. The fact that there is no simple method is the underpinning of most current encryption schemes.

The ZetaGrid client acts locally as a screen saver, and is available for Linux, AIX and Windows 95/98/Me/2000/NT/XP. It requires Java Runtime Environment 1.2.2 or later.
Distributed Computation
Zion Technologies The Zion Platform is a collection of libraries for creating distributed applications on networked services. The platform includes a runtime execution environment, a distributed information repository, a rules-based agents framework and distributed data discovery services.
The company also has a consumer-based product, Jobster, which was built using the Zion Platform. Jobster enables individuals and companies to publish their profiles and use customized agents to scout for a match.
Development Frameworks
Zodiac Networks Although this new start-up isn't talking much publicly about what exactly it's doing technology-wise, chances are that its all-star management team (made up of former Netscape chief executives Jim Barksdale and Marc Andreessen) will be integrating peer-to-peer networking technology into the kinds of outsourced infrastructure services that Andreessen's LoudCloud currently provides.
Infrastructure



P2P Weblogs

Richard Koman Richard Koman's Weblog
Supreme Court Decides Unanimously Against Grokster
Updating as we go. Supremes have ruled 9-0 in favor of the studios in MGM v Grokster. But does the decision have wider import? Is it a death knell for tech? It's starting to look like the answer is no. (Jun 27, 2005)

> More from O'Reilly Developer Weblogs


More Weblogs
FolderShare remote computer search: better privacy than Google Desktop? [Sid Steward]

Data Condoms: Solutions for Private, Remote Search Indexes [Sid Steward]

Behold! Google the darknet/p2p search engine! [Sid Steward]

Open Source & The Fallacy Of Composition [Spencer Critchley]